Solar Physics

, Volume 205, Issue 2, pp 383–401 | Cite as

Some Implications Using the Group Sunspot Number Reconstruction

  • R.P. Kane


The Wolf or Zürich sunspot number Rz, (values available from 1700 onwards) is considered the primary descriptor of solar activity for the past 100 years or more. Recently, another, more accurate time series, called the Group sunspot number, RG, has become available. Comparison of the indices suggests that Rzmay be grossly overestimated in the early sunspot records. In this paper, some results based previously on Rzare reexamined using RG. Conclusions based on data from about 1850 to the present remain the same. For the 18th century, however, small differences are seen. For estimates of solar irradiance in the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715), because both Rzand RGwere near zero then and are almost comparable today, irradiance estimates remain about the same, whether Rzor RGis used to calculate them. However, the evolutions of Rzand RGfrom their near zero value in the Maunder Minimum to their present similar value, are different, with Rzincreasing more rapidly than RGfrom 1700 to 1790. While the temperature of the Earth has increased almost monotonically for the past few centuries, the relationship of both Rzand RGwith the temperature trend is not especially great.


Time Series 18th Century Small Difference Solar Activity Temperature Trend 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • R.P. Kane
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espacias, INPESão José dos Campos, SPBrazil

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