Advertisement

Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 1–42 | Cite as

Morphologically conditioned phonological alternations

  • Arto Anttila
Article

Abstract

Alternations that are partly phonologically, partlymorphologically conditioned are a central problem in phonologicaltheory. In Optimality Theory, two types of solutions have beenproposed: morphologically specialized phonological constraints(interface constraints) and different constraint rankings fordifferent morphological categories (cophonologies). This paperpresents empirical evidence that distinguishes between these twohypotheses. Stem-final vowel alternations in Finnish are governed by amixed set of conditions that range from purely phonological tomorphological and lexical, from iron-clad exceptionless regularitiesto quantitative tendencies. Using a standard dictionary as the database, we show that phonological conditioning plays the dominant role,but in cases where phonology underdetermines the output, morphologicalconditioning may emerge. We then show that partial ordering ofconstraints, commonly used to model variation, extends tomorphological conditioning as well. The partial ordering model is arestrictive version of the cophonology model, which is thus supported.

Keywords

Artificial Intelligence Empirical Evidence Dominant Role Optimality Theory Central Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Ahlqvist, August. 1877. Suomen Kielen Rakennus [The Structure of Finnish], Helsinki.Google Scholar
  2. Alderete, John. 1999. Morphologically Governed Accent in Optimality Theory, Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachussetts, Amherst. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-309-0399.Google Scholar
  3. Anttila, Arto. 1997a. ‘Deriving Variation from Grammar’ in Frans Hinskens, Roeland van Hout, and Leo Wetzels (eds.), Variation, Change and Phonological Theory, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 35-68. Also http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-63.Google Scholar
  4. Anttila, Arto. 1997b. Variation in Finnish Phonology and Morphology, Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Anttila, Arto. 2000. ‘Derived Environment Effects in Colloquial Helsinki Finnish’ http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-406-08100.Google Scholar
  6. Anttila, Arto, and Young-mee Yu Cho. 1998. ‘Variation and Change in Optimality Theory’ Lingua 104, 31-56. Special issue on Optimality Theory.Google Scholar
  7. Beckman, Jill N. 1998. Positional Faithfulness, Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-234-1297.Google Scholar
  8. Benua, Laura. 1995. ‘Identity Effects in Morphological Truncation’ in Jill N. Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey, and Suzanne Urbanczyk (eds.), Papers in Optimality Theory, GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 77-136.Google Scholar
  9. Benua, Laura. 1998. Transderivational Identity: Phonological Relations Between Words, Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachussetts, Amherst. http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html/ROA-259-0498.Google Scholar
  10. Berkley, Deborah Milam. 1994. ‘Variability in Obligatory Contour Principle Effects’ in Beals et al. (ed.), CLS 30, Volume 2: Parasession on Variation in Linguistic Theory, CLS, Chicago, pp. 1-12.Google Scholar
  11. Boersma, Paul. 1998. Functional Phonology, Doctoral dissertation, University of Amsterdam. Published by Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague. Also http://uvafon.hum.uva.nl/paul/.Google Scholar
  12. Boersma, Paul, and Bruce Hayes. in press. ‘Empirical Tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm’ Linguistic Inquiry 32(1). Also http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-348-1099.Google Scholar
  13. Carlson, Lauri. 1978. ‘Word Stress in Finnish’ Ms., MIT.Google Scholar
  14. Casali, Roderic F. 1996. Resolving hiatus, Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-215-0997.Google Scholar
  15. Chomsky, Noam and Morris Halle. 1968. The Sound Pattern of English, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  16. Dolbey, Andrew. 1996. ‘Output Optimization and Cyclic Allomorph Selection’ in Brian Agbayani and Sze-Wing Tang (eds.), The Proceedings of the Fifteenth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 15), Stanford Linguistics Association/CSLI, Stanford, CA, pp. 97-112.Google Scholar
  17. Elenbaas, Nine. 1999. Foot typology and ternary stress systems, Doctoral dissertation, Utrecht Institute of Linguistics OTS. Published by Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague. Also http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-397-06100.Google Scholar
  18. Elenbaas, Nine and René Kager. 1999. ‘Ternary Rhythm and the Lapse Constraint’ Phonology 16(3), 273-329.Google Scholar
  19. Frisch, Stefan. 1996. Similarity and Frequency in Phonology, Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA 198-0597.Google Scholar
  20. Frisch, Stefan. 2000. ‘Temporally Organized Lexical Representations as Phonological Units’ in Michael Broe and Janet B. Pierrehumbert (eds.), Language acquisition and the lexicon: Papers in laboratory phonology V, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 283-98. Also http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-269-0798.Google Scholar
  21. Frisch, Stefan, Michael Broe, and Janet Pierrehumbert. 1997. ‘Similarity and Phonotactics in Arabic’ http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA 223-1097.Google Scholar
  22. Fukazawa, Haruka, Mafuyu Kitahara, and Mitsuhiko Ota. to appear. ‘Lexical Stratification and Ranking Invariance in Constraint-based Grammars’ in Proceedings of CLS 34, The Chicago Linguistic Society.Google Scholar
  23. Guy, Gregory and Charles Boberg. 1997. ‘Inherent Variability and the Obligatory Contour Principle’ Language Variation and Change 9, 149-64.Google Scholar
  24. Halle, Morris. 1992. ‘Phonological Features’ in W. Bright (ed.), International encyclopedia of linguistics, Vol. 3, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 207-12.Google Scholar
  25. Hammond, Michael. 1995. ‘There is No Lexicon!' http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-43.Google Scholar
  26. Hanson, Kristin and Paul Kiparsky. 1996. ‘A Parametric Theory of Poetic Meter’ Language 72, 287-335.Google Scholar
  27. Hargus, Sharon. 1993. ‘Modeling the Phonology-Morphology Interface’ in Sharon Hargus and Ellen Kaisse (eds.), Phonetics and Phonology, Volume 4: Studies in Lexical Phonology, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 45-74.Google Scholar
  28. Harris, Zellig. 1951. Structural Linguistics, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.Google Scholar
  29. Hayes, Bruce. to appear. ‘Gradient Well-formedness in Optimality Theory’ in Joost Dekkers, Frank van der Leeuw, and Jeroen van de Weijer (eds.), Optimality Theory: Phonology, Syntax and Acquisition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Also http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/gradient.htm.Google Scholar
  30. Helimski, Eugen. 1998. ‘Nganasan’ in Daniel Abondolo (ed.), The Uralic Languages, Routledge Language Family Descriptions, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 480-515.Google Scholar
  31. Hint, Mati. 1980. ‘Minevikuline ja tulevikuline aines keelesüsteemis. Prosoodiatüübi nihked ja selle tagajärjed [Past and present in the linguistic system. Changes in prosodic type and their consequences]’ Keel ja Kirjandus 23, 215-23, 270-8, 349-55.Google Scholar
  32. Inkelas, Sharon. 1998. ‘The Theoretical Status of Morphologically Conditioned Phonology: A Case Study of Dominance Effects’ in Gert Booij and Jaap van Marle (eds.), Yearbook of Morphology 1997, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 121-55.Google Scholar
  33. Inkelas, Sharon. 1999. ‘Exceptional Stress-attracting Suffixes in Turkish: Representations Versus the Grammar’ in René Kager, Harry van der Hulst, and Wim Zonneveld (eds.), The Prosody-Morphology Interface, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 134-87.Google Scholar
  34. Itkonen, Erkki. 1942. ‘Varhaiskantasuomen pääpainottoman ai-diftongin kahtalaisen kehityksen syistä [On the causes of the two distinct developments of the Early Proto-Finnic diphthongGoogle Scholar
  35. Virittäjä, 117-25.Google Scholar
  36. Itô, Junko and Armin Mester. 1995a. ‘The Core-periphery Structure in the Lexicon and Constraints on Re-ranking’ in Jill N. Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey and Suzanne Urbanczyk (eds.), Papers in Optimality Theory, GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 181-210.Google Scholar
  37. Itô, Junko and Armin Mester. 1995b. ‘Japanese Phonology’ in John A. Goldsmith (ed.), The Handbook of Phonological Theory, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 817-38.Google Scholar
  38. Itô, Junko and Armin Mester. 1998. ‘The Structure of the Phonological Lexicon’ in Natsuko Tsujimura (ed.), A Handbook of Japanese Linguistics, Blackwell, Malden, MA, and Oxford, U.K., pp. 62-100.Google Scholar
  39. Kager, René. 1996. ‘On Affix Allomorphy and Syllable Counting’ in U. Kleinhenz (ed.), Interfaces in phonology, Studia grammatica 41, Akademie Verlag, Berlin, pp. 155-71. Also http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-88.Google Scholar
  40. Kang, Hyeon-Seok. 1996. ‘The Deletion of w in Seoul Korean and Its Implications’ in David Dowty, Rebecca Herman, Elizabeth Hume, and Panayiotis A. Pappas (eds.), Working Papers in Linguistics No. 48, The Ohio State University, Department of Linguistics, pp. 56-76.Google Scholar
  41. Karlsson, Fred. 1982. Suomen kielen äänne-ja muotorakenne [The Phonological and Morphological Structure of Finnish], Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  42. Karlsson, Göran. 1978. ‘Kolmi-ja useampitavuisten nominivartaloiden loppu-A:n edustuminen monikon i:n edellä [The realization of the final A of trisyllabic and longer nominal stems before the plural i]’ in Rakenteita. Juhlakirja Osmo Ikolan 60-vuotispäiväksi, 6.2.1978., Turun Yliopiston suomalaisen ja yleisen kielitieteen laitos, pp. 86-99.Google Scholar
  43. Keyser, Samuel Jay and Paul Kiparsky. 1984. ‘Syllable Structure in Finnish Phonology’ in Mark Aronoff and Richard T. Oehrle (eds.), Language Sound Structure. Studies in Phonology Presented to Morris Halle by His Teacher and Students, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 7-31.Google Scholar
  44. Kiparsky, Paul. 1982. ‘Lexical Morphology and Phonology’ in I.-S.Yang (ed.), Linguistics in the Morning Calm, Vol. 2, Hanshin, Seoul, pp. 3-91.Google Scholar
  45. Kiparsky, Paul. 1989. ‘Phonological Change’ in Frederick Newmeyer (ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 363-415.Google Scholar
  46. Kiparsky, Paul. 1993. ‘Variable Rules’ Handout distributed at the Rutgers Optimality Workshop (ROW1).Google Scholar
  47. Kiparsky, Paul. 1995. ‘The Phonological Basis of Sound Change’ in John A. Goldsmith (ed.), The Handbook of Phonological Theory, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 640-70.Google Scholar
  48. Kiparsky, Paul. to appear. Paradigm Effects and Opacity, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  49. Labov, William. 1994. Principles of Linguistic Change: Internal Factors, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, and Cambridge, USA.Google Scholar
  50. Leben, William R. 1973. Suprasegmental Phonology, Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  51. Liberman, Mark. 1994. ‘Optionality and Optimality’ Fragment of a draft, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  52. McCarthy, John and Alan Prince. 1993. Prosodic Morphology I: Constraint Interaction and Satisfaction, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Rutgers University.Google Scholar
  53. McCarthy, John and Alan Prince. 1994. ‘The Emergence of the Unmarked’ http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-13.Google Scholar
  54. McCarthy, John and Alan Prince. 1995. ‘Faithfulness and Reduplicative Identity’ in Jill N. Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey, and Suzanne Urbanczyk (eds.), Papers in Optimality Theory, GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, pp. 249-384.Google Scholar
  55. Mohanan, K.P. 1986. The Theory of Lexical Phonology, Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  56. Mohanan, K.P. 1993. ‘Fields of Attraction in Phonology.’ in John Goldsmith (ed.), The Last Phonological Rule, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, pp. 61-116.Google Scholar
  57. Myers, James. 1999. ‘Lexical Phonology and the Lexicon’ http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-330.Google Scholar
  58. Nagy, Naomi and William Reynolds. 1997. ‘Optimality Theory and Variable Word-final Deletion in Faetar’ Language Variation and Change 9(1), 37-55.Google Scholar
  59. Orgun, Cemil Orhan. 1996. Sign-Based Morphology and Phonology with special attention to Optimality Theory, Doctoral dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-171.Google Scholar
  60. Partee, Barbara H., Alice ter Meulen, and Robert E. Wall. 1993. Mathematical Methods in Linguistics, corrected first edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  61. Paunonen, Heikki. 1974. Monikon genetiivin muodostus suomen kielessä I [Genitive plural formation in Finnish, Vol. I]. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  62. Penttilä, Aarni. 1963. Suomen kielioppi [Finnish grammar], 2nd revised edition. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, Porvoo.Google Scholar
  63. Prince, Alan and Paul Smolensky. 1993. Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, and University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  64. Revithiadou, Anthi. 1999. Headmost Accent Wins, Doctoral dissertation, Holland Institute of Generative Linguistics. Published by Holland Academic Graphics, The Hague. Also http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-388-04100.Google Scholar
  65. Ringen, Catherine O. and Orvokki Heinämäki. 1999. ‘Variation in Finnish Vowel Harmony’ Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 17, 303-37.Google Scholar
  66. Russell, Kevin. 1995. ‘Morphemes and Candidates in Optimality Theory’ http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-44-0195.Google Scholar
  67. Russell, Kevin. 1999. MOT: Sketch of an OT approach to morphology [DRAFT]. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-352-1099.Google Scholar
  68. Sadeniemi, Matti. 1949. Metriikkamme perusteet [The Fundamentals of Finnish Metrics]. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki.Google Scholar
  69. Sadeniemi, Matti (ed.). 1973. Nykysuomen sanakirja [Dictionary of Modern Finnish]. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, Porvoo.Google Scholar
  70. Sagey, Elizabeth. 1986. The representation of features and relations in nonlinear phonology, Doctoral dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  71. Smith, Jennifer L. 1997. Noun faithfulness: On the privileged status of nouns in phonology. http://www.ruccs.rutgers.edu/roa.html, ROA-242-0198.Google Scholar
  72. Tesar, Bruce and Paul Smolensky. 1998. ‘Learnability in Optimality Theory’ Linguistic Inquiry 29, 229-68.Google Scholar
  73. Thymé, Ann, Farrell Ackerman, and Jeff Elman. 1994. ‘Finnish Nominal Inflection. Paradigmatic Patterns and Token Analogy’ in Susan D. Lima, Roberta L. Corrigan, and Gregory K. Iverson (eds.), The Reality of Linguistic Rules, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 445-66.Google Scholar
  74. Urbanczyk, Suzanne. 1996. Patterns of Reduplication in Lushootsheed, Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  75. Wang, William S.-Y. 1969. ‘Competing Changes as a Cause of Residue’ Language 45, 9-25.Google Scholar
  76. Weinreich, Uriel, William Labov, and Marvin I. Herzog. 1968. ‘Empirical Foundations for a Theory of Language Change’ in W.P. Lehmann and Yakov Malkiel (eds.), Directions for Historical Linguistics: A Symposium, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, pp. 95-195.Google Scholar
  77. Wiik, Kalevi. 1984. Miksei munoja vaikka kanoja? [Why no eggs, although hens?], Publication no. 20. Turun Yliopiston Suomalaisen ja yleisen kielitieteen laitos, Turku.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arto Anttila
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Modern Foreign LanguagesLiteratures Boston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations