The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 285–302 | Cite as

Enhanced Simulated Annealing Technique for the Single-Row Routing Problem

  • Shaharuddin Salleh
  • Bahrom Sanugi
  • Hishamuddin Jamaluddin
  • Stephan Olariu
  • Albert Y. Zomaya


This paper presents ESSR (Enhanced Simulated annealing for Single-row Routing) model for solving the single-row routing problem. The main objective in this problem is to produce a realization that minimizes both the street congestion and the number of doglegs. Simulated annealing (SA) is a stochastic, hill-climbing and gradient-descent technique based on the statistical properties of particles undergoing thermal annealing. By performing slow cooling, the nets in the single-row routing problem align themselves according to a configuration with the lowest energy. The model has been known to produce reasonably good solutions for many NP-complete optimization problems, such as the single-row routing problem. In ESSR, our strategy is to minimize both the street congestion and the number of interstreet crossings (doglegs) by expressing a single energy function as their collective properties. This objective is achieved by representing the energy as the absolute sum of the heights of the net segments. To speed up convergence, we pivot the street congestion value while having the energy drops directly proportional to the number of doglegs. This action has the effect of minimizing the number of doglegs as the energy stabilizes. Our simulation work on ESSR produces optimal results in most cases for both the street congestion and the number of doglegs. Our experimental results compare well against results obtained from our earlier model (SRR-7) and two other methods reported in the literature.

single row routing simulated annealing efficient algorithms 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaharuddin Salleh
    • 1
  • Bahrom Sanugi
    • 2
  • Hishamuddin Jamaluddin
    • 3
  • Stephan Olariu
    • 4
  • Albert Y. Zomaya
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Science (Mathematics)Universiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Research Management CenterUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  4. 4.Computer Science DeptOld Dominion UniversityNorfolk
  5. 5.Dept of Electrical & Electronics Eng.University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

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