Acid Deposition and Acidification of Soil and Water in the Tie Shan Ping Area, Chongqing, China
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Chongqing is among the heaviest polluted cities in China. Combustion of coal with relatively high sulfur content causes high sulfur emission and deposition in the area. Effects on soils and waters of the acid deposition in the Chongqing area have been studied in the field at a forested site outside the city. Deposition chemistry and fluxes, soil and soil water chemistry as well as surface water chemistry are presented for the period 1996–1998. There are some stress symptoms at the forest in the area and severe forest damage has been reported at Nanshan, closer to Chongqing center. Monitoring of the acidification situation in the area must be followed closely as impacts may be expected if the deposition is not reduced in the future.
The deposition of sulfur, H+ as well as calcium at the site is high. Wet deposition of sulfur is estimated to 4.7 – 5.7 g S m−2 yr−1 during the three years sampled; dry deposition is probably of similar size. Annual volume-weighted pH in bulk deposition was 4.0 – 4.2 and the calcium wet deposition flux was 2.6 – 3.6 g Ca2+ m−2. There are considerable seasonal variations in the concentrations, related to the seasonal variations in precipitation amount (dry winter, wet summer). The soils at the site are acid with median base saturation of 12% and 8% in the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. In soil water, aluminum concentrations are typically in the range 3–8 mg L−1. However, due to the high base cation deposition, the Al/(Ca2++Mg2+) molar ratio is below unity in most samples, indicating little damage of forest due to aluminum in soil water.
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