Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 130, Issue 1, pp 1121–1126

Deposition Patterns of SO42−, NO3 and H+ in the Brazilian Territory

  • M. Cristina Forti
  • Adilson Carvalho
  • Adolpho J. Melfi
  • Celia R. Montes
Article

DOI: 10.1023/A:1013931806860

Cite this article as:
Forti, M.C., Carvalho, A., Melfi, A.J. et al. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution (2001) 130: 1121. doi:10.1023/A:1013931806860

Abstract

SO42−, NO3 and H+ depositions are estimated in the Brazilian territory based on the existing rainfall chemical data and on annual rainfall distribution over the whole territory. Local and regional depositions are estimated. Rainfall chemical data over the Braziliian territory shows that the average pH values are usually low (between 4.0 and 5.5). These values are observed in the tropical Amazon forest as well as in urban areas. However, the rainwater acidity in the tropical forests are due to organic acids naturally produced by the vegetation while in urban areas the acidity is mainly due to acidic anion deposition (NO3 and SO42−). In some Amazonian areas, the average input values through rainfall for NO3 is about 0.06 keq.ha.yr−1 and for SO42− is between 0.23 and 0.54 keq.ha−1.yr−1. On the other hand, in some urban centers, such as São Paulo, values of .072 keq.ha−1.yr−1 for NO3 and 1.16 keq.ha−1.yr−1 of SO42− are found and in sites where sulfate sources (coal mining) are present, as for the area of Florianópolis, values as high as 5.59 keq.ha−1.yr−1 for SO42− are found.

Acid rain Brazilian territory nitrate sulfate 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cristina Forti
    • 1
  • Adilson Carvalho
    • 2
  • Adolpho J. Melfi
    • 3
  • Celia R. Montes
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais and NUPEGELSão Jose dos CamposBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Sedimentary Geology and EnvironmentUniversity of São Paulo and NUPEGELSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of São Paulo and NUPEGELPiracicabaBrazil

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