Solar Physics

, Volume 205, Issue 1, pp 189–200 | Cite as

Relative Sunspot Numbers in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century

  • V. Letfus


We derived daily relative sunspot numbers and their monthly and annual means in the first half of the seventeenth century. The series of observations collected by Wolf were recorded in the years 1611–1613 and 1642–1644. We used a nonlinear two-step interpolation method derived earlier (Letfus, 1996, 1999) to enlarge the number of daily data. Before interpolation the relative monthly frequency of observations in 24 months of the first time interval 1611–1613 was 49.4% and in 22 months of the second interval 1642–1644 was 49.9%. After interpolation the relative frequency increased in the first time interval to 91.3%, in the second time interval to 82.6%. Most data series in the years 1611–1613 overlap one another and also overlap with a series, for which Wolf estimated a scaling factor converting relative sunspot numbers on the Zürich scale. We derived the scaling factors of all individual series of observations also from the ratios of observed numbers of sunspots to the numbers of sunspot groups (Letfus, 2000). The differences between almost all scaling factors derived in one and the other way are not substantial. All data series were homogenized by application of scaling factors and parallel data in the overlapping parts of data series were averaged. Resulting daily relative sunspot numbers and their monthly and annual means in the years l61l–1613 are given in Table I and those in the years 1642–1644 in Table II. The annual means of these data are compared with analogous data obtained otherwise.


Relative Frequency Data Series Scaling Factor Interpolation Method Sunspot Number 
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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Letfus
    • 1
  1. 1.Astronomical InstituteAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicOndřejovCzech Republic

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