Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 43–71 | Cite as

The Role of Leisure in Determining Quality of Life: Issues of Content and Measurement

  • Kathleen M. Lloyd
  • Christopher J. Auld
Article

Abstract

Traditional approaches to themeasurement of leisure's relationship toquality of life have emphasised place-centredindicators (e.g., the frequency of leisurefacility usage) and tended to ignoreperson-centred criteria (e.g., satisfactionwith leisure experiences). Moreover, theunderlying assumption in subsequent policyoutcomes has been that increasing the number offacilities and services will automaticallyenhance people's QOL. This paper focuses onboth the content and measurement of leisure andits relationship to quality of life. Itreports the results of a study that examinedthe relative importance of selected place andperson-centred leisure attributes in predictingquality of life. The study tested a set ofobjective and subjective indicators that peopleare most concerned with in their leisure lives. Overall, it was found that the person-centredleisure attribute, leisure satisfaction, wasthe best predictor of quality of life. Place-centred attributes failed to influencequality of life. Further analysis revealedthat people who engage in social activitiesmore frequently and who are more satisfied withthe psychological benefits they derive fromleisure, experience higher levels of perceivedquality of life. The results suggest thatthere is a need to reconcile objectiveknowledge with subjective perceptions ofleisure in order to achieve greaterunderstanding and comprehensive measurement ofthis complex domain and its relationship toquality of life.

Keywords

Good Predictor Traditional Approach Subjective Perception Comprehensive Measurement Complex Domain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Aiken, L. and S. West: 1991, Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions (Sage, Newbury Park, CA).Google Scholar
  2. Allen, L.: 1991, 'Benefits of leisure services to community satisfaction', in B. Driver, P. Brown and G. Peterson (eds.), Benefits of Leisure (Venture Publishing Inc, State College, PA, pp. 332-350).Google Scholar
  3. Allen, L. and R. Beattie: 1984, 'The role of leisure as an indicator of overall satisfaction with community life', Journal of Leisure Research 16, pp. 99-109.Google Scholar
  4. Altheide, D.: 1997, 'Media participation in everyday life', Leisure Sciences 19, pp. 17-29.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, F. and S. Withey: 1976, Social Indicators of Wellbeing: America's Perception of Life Quality (Plenum Press, New York).Google Scholar
  6. Auld, C. and A. Case: 1997, 'Social exchange processes in leisure and non-leisure settings: A review and exploratory investigation', Journal of Leisure Research 29, pp. 183-200.Google Scholar
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics: 1994, October 1993: Participation in Sporting and Physical Recreational Activities–Queensland (ABS, Canberra).Google Scholar
  8. Australian Bureau of Statistics: 1995, Australian Social Trends 1995 (ABS, Canberra).Google Scholar
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics: 1997, 1996 Census of Population and Housing–Basic Community Profile: Brisbane City (ABS, Canberra).Google Scholar
  10. Australian Bureau of Statistics: 1998a, Population by Age and Sex, Queensland: 30 June, 1996 (ABS, Canberra).Google Scholar
  11. Australian Bureau of Statistics: 1998b, Information Paper: 1996 Census of Population and Housing, Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (ABS, Canberra).Google Scholar
  12. Baldwin, K. and H. Tinsley: 1988, 'An investigation of the validity of Tinsley and Tinsley's (1986) theory of leisure experience', Journal of Counseling Psychology 35, pp. 263-267.Google Scholar
  13. Bale, J.: 1993, Sport, Space and The City (Routledge, London).Google Scholar
  14. Beard, J. and M. Ragheb: 1980, 'Measuring leisure satisfaction', Journal of Leisure Research 12, pp. 20-33.Google Scholar
  15. Benum, K., T. Anstorp, O. Dalgard and T. Sorensen: 1987, 'Social network stim-ulation: Health promotion in a high risk group of middle-aged women', Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia Supplement (337) 76, pp. 33-41.Google Scholar
  16. Blake, B., K. Wiegl and R. Perloff: 1975, 'Perceptions of the ideal community', Journal of Applied Psychology 60, pp. 612-615.Google Scholar
  17. Bonnes, M., L. Mannetti, G. Secchiaroli and G. Tanucci: 1990, 'The city as a multi-place system: An analysis of people-urban environment transactions', Journal of Environmental Psychology 10, pp. 37-65.Google Scholar
  18. Brisbane City Council: 1994, Brisbane 2011 the Livable City for the Future: Environment and Recreation Draft Policy Paper (BCC, Brisbane).Google Scholar
  19. Brown, B., G. Frankel and M. Fennell: 1991, 'Happiness through leisure: The impact of type of leisure activity, age, gender and leisure satisfaction on psychological well-being', Journal of Applied Recreation Research 16, pp. 368-392.Google Scholar
  20. Bubolz, M., J. Eicher, S. Evers and S. Sontag: 1980, 'A human ecological approach to quality of life: Conceptual framework and results of a preliminary study', Social Indicators Research 7, pp. 103-136.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, A., P. Converse and W. Rodgers: 1976, The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations and Satisfactions (Russell Sage Foundation, New York).Google Scholar
  22. Compton, D.: 1997, 'Rehabilitation, medicine, and quality of life', Unpublished Visiting Scholar Lecture (University of Sydney).Google Scholar
  23. Cooper, H., L. Okamura and V. Gurka: 1992, 'Social activity and subjective well-being', Personality and Individual Differences 13, pp. 573-583.Google Scholar
  24. Csikszentmihalyi, M.: 1997, Finding flow: The Psychology of Engagement in Everyday Life (Basic Books, New York).Google Scholar
  25. Cummins, R.: 1996, 'The domains of life satisfaction: An attempt to order chaos', Social Indicators Research 38, pp. 303-332.Google Scholar
  26. Darlow, A.: 1996, 'Cultural policy and urban sustainability: Making a missing link?', Planning Practice and Research 11, pp. 291-301.Google Scholar
  27. Diener, E., R. Emmons, R. Larsen and S. Griffin: 1985, 'The satisfaction with life scale', Journal of Personality Assessment 49, pp. 71-75.Google Scholar
  28. Diener, E. and E. Suh: 1997, 'Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators', Social Indicators Research 40, pp. 189-216.Google Scholar
  29. Dowall, J., C. Bolter, R. Flett and R. Kammann: 1988, 'Psychological well-being and its relationship to fitness and activity levels', Journal of Human Movement Studies 14, pp. 39-45.Google Scholar
  30. Eckersley, R.: 1999, Quality of Life in Australia: An Analysis of Public Perceptions–Discussion Paper Number 23 (The Australia Institute Ltd, Lyneham, ACT).Google Scholar
  31. Edginton, C., D. Jordan, D. De Graaf and S. Edginton: 1995, Leisure and Life Satisfaction: Foundational Perspectives (Brown and Benchmark Publishers, Madison, Dubuque).Google Scholar
  32. Eyles, J.: 1985, Senses of Place (Silverbrooks, Warrington).Google Scholar
  33. Foong, A.: 1992, 'Physical exercise/sports and biopsychosocial well-being', Journal of The Royal Society of Health 112, pp. 227-230.Google Scholar
  34. Headey, B.: 1988, 'The life satisfactions and priorities of Australians', in J. Kelley and C. Bean (eds.), Australian Attitudes: Social and Political Analyses from the National Social Science Survey (Allen and Unwin Australia, North Sydney, pp. 163-175).Google Scholar
  35. Headey, B., R. Veenhoven and A. Wearing: 1991, 'Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being', Social Indicators Research 24, pp. 81-100.Google Scholar
  36. Headey, B. and A. Wearing: 1988, 'The sense of relative superiority–central to wellbeing', Social Indicators Research 20, pp. 497-516.Google Scholar
  37. Henderson, K.: 1990, 'The meaning of leisure for women: An integrative review of the research', Journal of Leisure Research 22, pp. 228-243.Google Scholar
  38. Herzberg, F.: 1968, 'One more time: How do you motivate employees', Harvard Business Review January-February, pp. 53-62.Google Scholar
  39. Iwasaki, Y. and B. Smale: 1998, 'Longitudinal analyses of the relationship among life transitions, chronic health problems, leisure, and psychological well-being', Leisure Sciences 20, pp. 25-52.Google Scholar
  40. Jaakson, R.: 1986, 'Recreation and generic urban housing form', Environment and Behaviour 18, pp. 502-532.Google Scholar
  41. Jacob, S. and F. Willits: 1994, 'Objective and subjective indicators of community evaluation: A Pennsylvania assessment', Social Indicators Research 32, pp. 161-177.Google Scholar
  42. Kernan, J. and L. Unger: 1987, 'Leisure, quality-of-life, and marketing', in A. Samli (ed.), Marketing and the Quality of Life Interface (Quorum Books, New York, pp. 236-252).Google Scholar
  43. Kousha, M. and N. Mohseni: 1997, 'Predictors of life satisfaction among urban Iranian women: An exploratory analysis', Social Indicators Research 40, pp. 329-357.Google Scholar
  44. Marans, R. and P. Mohai: 1991, 'Leisure resources, recreation activity, and the quality of life', in B. Driver, P. Brown and G. Peterson (eds.), Benefits of Leisure (Venture Publishing, Inc, State College, PA, pp. 351-363).Google Scholar
  45. Marans, R. and W. Rodgers: 1975, 'Toward an understanding of community satisfaction', in A. Hawley and V. Rock (eds.), Metropolitan America in Contemporary Perspective (Halstead Press, New York, pp. 299-352).Google Scholar
  46. McCormick, B. and F. McGuire: 1996, 'Leisure in community life of older rural residents', Leisure Sciences 18, pp. 77-93.Google Scholar
  47. Mercer, C.: 1994, 'Assessing liveability: From statistical indicators to policy benchmarks', in C. Mercer (ed.), Urban and Regional Quality of Life Indicators (Institute for Cultural Policy Studies, Griffith University, Brisbane, pp. 3-12).Google Scholar
  48. Michalos, A.: 1980, 'Satisfaction and happiness', Social Indicators Research 8, pp. 385-422.Google Scholar
  49. Moller, V.: 1992, 'Spare time use and perceived well-being among black South African youth', Social Indicators Research 26, pp. 309-351.Google Scholar
  50. Mookherjee, H.: 1992, 'Perceptions of well-being by metropolitan and nonmet-ropolitan populations in the United States', The Journal of Social Psychology 132, pp. 513-524.Google Scholar
  51. Osborne, S.: 1992, 'The quality dimension. Evaluating quality of service and quality of life in human services', British Journal of Social Work 22, pp. 437-453.Google Scholar
  52. Papageourgiou, F.: 1991, 'Leisure, culture and the political economy of the city: A case study of Kalamata', Society and Leisure 14, pp. 483-495.Google Scholar
  53. Pavot, W. and E. Diener: 1993, 'The affective and cognitive context of self-reported measures of subjective well-being', Social Indicators Research 28, pp. 1-20.Google Scholar
  54. Ragheb, M.: 1993, 'Leisure and perceived wellness: A field investigation', Leisure Sciences 15, pp. 13-24.Google Scholar
  55. Ragheb, M. and J. Beard: 1982, 'Measuring leisure attitude', Journal of Leisure Research 14, pp. 155-167.Google Scholar
  56. Ragheb, M. and R. Tate: 1993, 'A behavioural model of leisure participation, based on leisure attitude, motivation and satisfaction', Leisure Studies 12, pp. 61-70.Google Scholar
  57. Robinson, J.P. and G. Godbey: 1997, Time for Life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time (The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA).Google Scholar
  58. Romney, D., R. Brown and P. Fry: 1994, 'Improving the quality of life: Prescrip-tions for change', Social Indicators Research 33, pp. 237-272.Google Scholar
  59. Russell, R.: 1987, 'The importance of recreation satisfaction and activity participation to the life satisfaction of age-segregated retirees', Journal of Leisure Research 19, pp. 273-283.Google Scholar
  60. Russell, R.: 1990, 'Recreation and quality of life in old age: A causal analysis', The Journal of Applied Gerontology 9, pp. 77-90.Google Scholar
  61. Siegenthaler, K. and J. Vaughan: 1998, Older women in retirement communities: Perceptions of recreation and leisure', Leisure Sciences 20, pp. 53-66.Google Scholar
  62. Tinsley, H., J. Teaff, S. Colbs and N. Kaufman: 1985, 'A system of classifying leisure activities in terms of the psychological benefits of participation reported by older persons', Journal of Gerontology 40, pp. 172-178.Google Scholar
  63. Vreugdenhil, A. and K. Rigby: 1987, 'Assessing generalized community satisfaction', The Journal of Social Psychology 127, pp. 367-374.Google Scholar
  64. Wachter, C. and J. Kelly: 1998, 'Exploring VCR use as a leisure activity', Leisure Sciences 20, pp. 213-227.Google Scholar
  65. Wankel, L. and B. Berger: 1990, 'The psychological and social benefits of sport and physical activity', Journal of Leisure Research 22, pp. 167-182.Google Scholar
  66. Winefield, A., M. Tiggemann and H. Winefield: 1992, 'Spare time use and psychological well-being in employed and unemployed young people', Journal of Occupational and organizational Psychology 65, pp. 307-313.Google Scholar
  67. Yuen, B.: 1996, 'Use and experience of neighbourhood parks in Singapore', Journal of Leisure Research 28, pp. 293-311.Google Scholar
  68. Zukin, S.: 1995, The Culture of Cities (Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Cambridge, MA).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen M. Lloyd
    • 1
  • Christopher J. Auld
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Leisure Studies, Faculty of Commerce and ManagementGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia

Personalised recommendations