Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 130, Issue 1–4, pp 781–786 | Cite as

Assessment of Nitrogen Leaching at ICP-Waters Sites (Europe and North America)

  • John L. Stoddard
  • Tor S. Traaen
  • Brit Lisa Skjelkvåle


The International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes (ICP-Waters) is designed to assess the degree and geographical extent of acidification of surface waters. During the last 20 years, international emission reduction measures in Europe and North America have resulted in a decrease in atmospheric S-deposition of up to 50%, while N-deposition has stayed almost constant. Empirical relationships between N-deposition and stages of nitrogen saturation are used to assess the importance of nitrogen leaching at the ICP-Waters sites in Europe and North America. There is a clear coherence between high N saturation stages and high N deposition loads and more than 50% of the analysed ICP Waters sites show a high degree of nitrogen saturation, defined as stages 2 or 3 in Stoddard's classification system. Significant leaching of inorganic N also occurs at most sites with deposition greater than 10 kg/ha/yr.

nitrogen saturation surface water regional assessment ICP-Waters 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • John L. Stoddard
    • 1
  • Tor S. Traaen
    • 2
  • Brit Lisa Skjelkvåle
    • 2
  1. 1.Western Ecology DivisionU.S. EPACorvallis, OregonUSA
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Water ResearchOsloNorway

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