ICP Waters — an International Programme for Surface Water Monitoring
The International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes (ICP Waters) was established in July 1985 under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) Executive Body of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The Programme Centre is at the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo. The main aim of the Programme is to assess, on a regional basis, the degree and geographical extent of acidification of surface waters. 23 countries in Europe and North America participate on a regular basis. The major findings in the programme cover (1) regional trends in water chemistry related to changes in S- and N-deposition, (2) dose/response relationships particularly between biology (invertebrates) and water chemistry (acidification status), (3) effects of acidification on aquatic fauna, (4) implications for the assessment of critical loads, and (5) nitrogen leaching. Both chemical and biological intercalibrations and intercomparisons are important parts of the programme activities.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Henriksen, A. and Posch, M.: 1998, Critical loads and their exceedances for ICP-Waters sites. ICP Waters Report 44/98, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo. 36 pp.Google Scholar
- Lükewille, A., Jeffries, D. S., Johannessen, M., Raddum, G. G., Stoddard, J. L., and Traaen, T. S.: 1997, The Nine Year Report: Acidification of surface water in Europe and North America-Long-term Developments (1980s and 1990s). ICP Waters Report 41/97, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo. 168 pp.Google Scholar
- Raddum, G. G. and Skjelkvåle, B. L.: 1995, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 85, 475.Google Scholar
- Raddum, G. G. and Skjelkvåle, B. L.: 2000, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution This volume.Google Scholar
- Skjelkvåle, B. L., Andersen, T., Halvorsen, G. A., Heegaard, E., Stoddard, J. L., and Wright, R. F.: 2000, The 12–year report; Acidification of surface water in Europe and North America; trends, biological recovery and heavy metals. ICP Waters report 52/2000, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, 108 pp.Google Scholar
- Skjelkvåle, B. L., Newell, A. D., Raddum, G. G., Johannessen, M., Hovind, H., Tjomsland, T., and Wathne, B. M.: 1994, The six year report: Acidification of surface water in Europe and North America. Dose/response relationships and long-term trends. ICP Waters report 27/1994. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo. 135 pp.Google Scholar
- Skjelkvåle, B.L. Stoddard J.L. and Andersen T.: 2000, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution This volume.Google Scholar
- Stoddard, J. L.: 1994, Long-Term Changes in Watershed Retention of Nitrogen: its causes and aquatic consequences, p.223–284, In: Baker, L. A., Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs, American Chemical Society, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Stoddard, J.L. Traaen, T.s. and Skjelkvåle. B.L.: 2000, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution This volume.Google Scholar
- Stoddard, J. L., Jeffries, D. S., Lükewille, A., Clair, T. A., Dillon, P. J., Driscoll, C. T., Forsius, M., Johannessen, M., Kahl, J. S., Kellogg, J. H., Kemp, A., Mannio, J., Monteith, D., Murdoch, P. S., Patrick, S., Rebsdorf, A., Skjelkvåle, B. L., Stainton, M. P., Traaen, T. S., van Dam, H., Webster, K. E., Wieting, J., and Wilander, A.: 1999, Nature 401, 575.Google Scholar
- Traaen, T. S. and Stoddard, J. L.: 1995, An Assessment of Nitrogen Leaching from Watersheds included in ICP on Waters. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, ICP Waters report 31/1995. Norwegian Institute for Waters Research, Oslo. 39 pp.Google Scholar
- UN/ECE: 1996, Manual on Methodologies and Criteria for Mapping Critical Levels/Loads and Geographical Areas where They are Exceeded. UN/ECE CLRTAP Texte 71/96, Umweltbundesamt, Berlin.Google Scholar
- Wathne, B. M.: 1991, The Three Year Report: Summary and Results 1987–1989. ICP Waters report 14/1991. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo. 205 pp.Google Scholar