, Volume 111, Issue 1–3, pp 439–446 | Cite as

Two 5S rDNA arrays in Neotropical fish species: is it a general rule for fishes?

  • C. Martins
  • P.M. GalettiJr.Email author


In this paper we describe Southern blot hybridization results probed with 5S rRNA genes for several Neotropical fish species representing different taxonomic groups. All the studied species showed a general trend with the 5S rDNA tandem repeats organized in two distinct size-classes. At the same time, data on 5S rDNA organization in fish genome were summarized. Previous information on the organization and evolution of 5S rRNA gene arrays in the genome of this vertebrate group are in agreement with the Southern results here presented. Sequences obtained for several fish species have revealed the occurrence of two distinct 5S rDNA classes characterized by distinct non-transcribed spacer sequences, which are clustered in different chromosomes in some species. Moreover, the 5S rDNA loci are generally distributed in an interstitial position in the chromosomes and they are usually not syntenic to the 45S rDNA. The presence of two classes of 5S rDNA in several non-related fish species suggests that this could be a common condition for the 5S rRNA gene organization in the fish genome.

fish non-transcribed spacer NTS 5S rDNA 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amarasinghe, V. & J.E. Carlson, 1998. Physical mapping and characterization of 5S rRNA genes in douglas-fir. Amer. Gen. Assoc. 89: 495–500.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, W.J., T.A. Hedderson & J. Dransfield, 2000. Molecular phylogenetics of Calamus (Palmae) and related rattan genera based on 5S nrDNA spacer sequence data. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 14: 218–231.Google Scholar
  3. Belkhiri, A., J. Buchko & G.R. Klassen, 1992. The 5S ribosomal RNA gene in Pythium species: two different genomic locations. Mol. Biol. Evol. 9: 1089–1102.Google Scholar
  4. Born, G.G. & L.A.C. Bertollo, 2000. An XX/XY sex chromosome system in a fish species, Hoplias malabaricus with a polymorphic NOR bearing X chromosome. Chrom. Res. 8: 111–118.Google Scholar
  5. Deiana, A.M., A. Cau, S. Salvadori, E. Coluccia, R. Cannas, A. Milia & J. Tagliavini, 2000. Major and 5S ribosomal sequences of the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Perciformes, Centrarchidae) are localized in GC-rich regions of the genome. Chrom. Res. 8: 213–218.Google Scholar
  6. Dover, G.A., 1986. Molecular drive in multigene families: how biological novelties arise, spread and are assimilated. Trends Genet. 2: 159–165.Google Scholar
  7. Drouin, G. & M. Moniz de Sá, 1995. The concerted evolution of 5S ribosomal genes linked to the repeat units of other multigene families. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12: 481–493.Google Scholar
  8. Elder Jr., J.F. & B.J. Turner, 1995. Concerted evolution of repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotes. Quarter. Rev. Biol. 70: 277–320.Google Scholar
  9. Fischer, C., C. Ozouf-Costaz, H.R. Crollius, C. Dasilva, O. Jaillon, L. Bouneau, C. Bonillo, J. Weissenbach & A. Bernot, 2000. Karyotype and chromosomal location of characteristic tandem repeats in the pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 88: 50–55.Google Scholar
  10. Fontana, F., J. Tagliavini, L. Congiu, M. Lanfredi, M. Chicca, C. Laurente & R. Rossi, 1998. Karyotypic characterization of the great sturgeon, Huso huso, by multiple staining techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Marine Biol. 132: 495–501.Google Scholar
  11. Fontana, F., M. Lanfredi, M. Chicca, L. Congiu, J. Tagliavini & R. Rossi, 1999. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with rDNA probes on chromosomes of Acipenser ruthenus and Acipenser naccarii (Osteichthyes, Acipenserifomes). Genome 42: 1008–1012.Google Scholar
  12. Frederiksen, S., H. Cao, B. Lomholt, G. Levan & C. Hallemberg, 1997. The rat 5S rRNA bona fide gene repeat maps to chromosome 19q122192qter and the pseudogene repeat maps to 12q12. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 76: 101–106.Google Scholar
  13. Fujiwara, A., S. Abe, E. Yamaha, F. Yamazaki & M.C. Yoshida, 1998. Chromosomal localization and heterochromatin association of ribosomal RNA genes loci and silver stained nucleolar organizer regions in salmonid fishes. Chrom. Res. 6: 463–471.Google Scholar
  14. Hallenberg, C., J. Nederby-Nielsen & S. Frederiksen, 1994. Characterization of 5S rRNA genes from mouse. Gene 142: 291–295.Google Scholar
  15. Hanson, R.E., M.N. Islam-Faridi, E.A. Percival, C.F. Crane, Y. Ji, T.D. McKnight, D.M. Stelly & H.J. Price, 1996. Distribution of 5S and 18S-28S rDNA loci in a tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and its putative diploid ancestors. Chromosoma 105: 55–61.Google Scholar
  16. Inafuku, J., M. Nabeyama, Y. Kikuma, J. Saitoh, S. Kibota & S. Kohno, 2000. Chromosomal location and nucleotide sequences of 5S ribosomal DNA of two cyprinid species (Osteichthyes, Pisces). Chrom. Res. 8: 193–199.Google Scholar
  17. Jacq, C., J.R. Miller & G.G. Brownlee, 1977. A pseudogene structure in 5S DNA of Xenopus laevis. Cell 12: 109–120.Google Scholar
  18. Kikuma, Y., J. Inafuku, S. Kubota & S. Kohno, 2000. Banding karyotype and 5S ribosomal DNA loci in the Japanese bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus (Cyprinidae). Chrom. Sci. 3: 101–103.Google Scholar
  19. Komiya, H., M. Hasegawa & S. Takemura, 1986. Differentiation of oocyte-and somatic-type 5S rRNAs in animals. J. Biochem. 100: 369–374.Google Scholar
  20. Korn, L.J. 1982. Transcription of Xenopus 5S ribosomal RNA genes. Nature 295: 101–105.Google Scholar
  21. Lamond, A.I. & W.C. Earnshaw, 1998. Structure and function in the nucleous. Science 280: 547–553.Google Scholar
  22. Leah, R., S. Frederiksen, J. Engberg & P.D. Sorensen, 1990. Nucleotide sequence of a mouse 5S rRNA variant gene. Nucl. Acids Res. 18: 7441.Google Scholar
  23. Lewin, B., 1997. Genes VI. Oxford University Press. New York.Google Scholar
  24. Little, R. & D. Braaten, 1989. Genomic organization of human 5S rDNA and sequence of one tandem repeat. Genomics 4: 376–383.Google Scholar
  25. Lucchini, S., I. Nardi, G. Barsacchi, R. Batistoni & F. Andronico, 1993. Molecular cytogenetics of the ribosomal (18S+28S and 5S) DNA loci in primitive and advanced urodele amphibians. Genome 36: 762–773.Google Scholar
  26. Mäkinem, A., C. Zijlstra, N.A. De Haan, C.H.M. Mellink & A.A. Bosma, 1997. Localization of 18S plus 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the dog by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 78: 231–235.Google Scholar
  27. Mandrioli, M., M.S. Colomba & R. Vitturi, 2000. Chromosomal analysis of repeated DNAs in the rainbow wrasse Coris julis (Pisces, Labridae). Genetica 108: 191–195.Google Scholar
  28. Martínez, J.L., P. Morán, E. García-Vázquez & A.M. Pendás, 1996. Chromosomal localization of the major and 5S rRNA genes in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 73: 149–152.Google Scholar
  29. Martins, C. & P.M. Galetti Jr., 1999. Chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA genes in Leporinus fish (Anostomidae, Characiformes). Chromosome Res. 7: 363–367.Google Scholar
  30. Martins, C. & P.M. Galetti Jr., 2000 Conservative distribution of 5S rDNA loci in Schizodon (Pisces, Anostomidae) chromosomes. Chrom. Res. 8: 353–355.Google Scholar
  31. Martins, C., A.P. Wasko, C. Oliveira & J.M. Wright, 2000. Nucleotide sequence of 5S rDNA and localization of the ribosomal RNA genes to metaphase chromosomes of the tilapiine cichlid fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Hereditas 133: 39–46.Google Scholar
  32. Martins, C. & P.M. Galetti Jr., 2001. Organization of 5S rDNA in Leporinus fish species: two different genomic locations are characterized by distinct non-transcribed spacers (NTSs). Genome 44: 903–910.Google Scholar
  33. Mellink, C.H.M., A.A. Bosma, N.A. de Haan & C. Zijlstra, 1996. Physical localization of 5S rRNA genes in the pig by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hereditas 124: 95–97.Google Scholar
  34. Móran, P., J.L. Martínez, E. Garcia-Vásquez & A.M. Pendás, 1996. Sex linkage of 5S rDNA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 75: 145–150.Google Scholar
  35. Murakami, M. & H. Fujitani, 1998. Characterization of repetitive DNA sequences carrying 5S rDNA of the triploid ginbuna (Japanese silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfi). Genes Genet. Syst. 73: 9–20.Google Scholar
  36. Nederby-Nielsen, J., C. Hallenberg, S. Frederiksen, P.D. Sorensen & B. Lomholt, 1993. Transcription of human 5S rRNA genes is influenced by an upstream DNA sequence. Nucl. Acids Res. 26: 3631–3636.Google Scholar
  37. Nieddu, M., G. Pichiri, P. Coni, S. Salvadori, A.M. Deiana & R. Mezzanotte, 1998. A comparative analysis of European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla and Anguilla rostrata) genomic DNA: 5S rDNA polymorphism permits the distinction between the two populations. Genome 41: 728–732.Google Scholar
  38. Pendás, A.M., P. Móran, J.P. Freije & E. Garcia-Vásquez, 1994. Chromosomal location and nucleotide sequence of two tandem repeats of the Atlantic salmon 5S rDNA. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 67: 31–36.Google Scholar
  39. Pendás, A.M., P. Móran, J.L. Martínez & E. Garcia-Vásquez, 1995. Applications of 5S rDNA in Atlantic salmon, brow trout, and in Atlantic salmon x brown trout hybrid identification. Mol. Ecol. 4: 275–276.Google Scholar
  40. Peterson, R.C., J.L. Doering & D.D. Brown, 1980. Characterization of two Xenopus somatic 5S DNAs and one minor oocyte-specific 5S DNA. Cell 20: 131–141.Google Scholar
  41. Philips, R.B. & K.M. Reed, 2000. Localization of repetitive DNAs to zebrafish (Danio rerio) chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chrom. Res. 8: 27–35.Google Scholar
  42. del Pino, E.M., C. Murphy, P.H. Masson & J.G. Gall, 1992. 5S rRNA-encoding genes of the marsupial frog Gastrotheca riobambae. Gene 111: 235–238.Google Scholar
  43. Rocco, L., C. Russo, V. Stingo, G. Aprea & G. Odierna, 1999. Characterisation of 5S rDNA in Gasterosteus aculeatus (Teleostei, Gasterosteidae). Ital. J. Zool. 66: 285–289.Google Scholar
  44. Rosenthal, D.S. & J.L. Doering, 1983. The genomic organization of dispersed tRNA and 5S RNA genes in Xenopus laevis. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 7402–7410.Google Scholar
  45. Sajdak, S.L., K.M. Reed & R.B. Phillips, 1998. Intraindividual and interspecies variation in the 5S rDNA of coregonid fish. J. Mol. Evol. 46: 680–688.Google Scholar
  46. Sambrook, J., E.F. Fritsch & T. Maniatis, 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  47. Schmid, M., L. Vitelli & R. Batistoni, 1987. Chromosome banding in Amphibia. IV. Constitutive heterochromatin, nucleolus organizers, 18S+28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaphidae, Pipidae, Discoglossidae and Pelobatidae. Chromosoma 95: 271–284.Google Scholar
  48. Sola, L., S. De Innocentiis, E. Gornung, S. Papalia, A.R. Rossi, G. Marino, P. De Marco & S. Cataudella, 2000. Cytogenetic analysis of Epinephelus marginatus (Pisces: Serranidae), with the chromosome localization of the 18S and 5S rRNA genes and of the (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequence. Marine Biol. 137: 47–51.Google Scholar
  49. Southern, E.M., 1975. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis.J. Mol. Biol. 98: 503–517.Google Scholar
  50. Suzuki, H., K. Moriwaki & S. Sakurai, 1994. Sequences and evolutionary analysis of mouse 5S rDNAs. Mol. Biol. Evol. 11: 704–710.Google Scholar
  51. Suzuki, H., S. Sakurai & Y. Matsuda, 1996. Rat rDNA spacer sequences and chromosomal assignment of the genes to the extreme terminal region of chromosome 19. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 72: 1–4.Google Scholar
  52. Tagliavini, J., P. Williot, L. Congiu, M. Chicca, M. Lanfredi, R. Rossi & F. Fontana, 1999. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the karyotype of the European Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio. Heredity 83: 520–525.Google Scholar
  53. Vitelli, L., R. Batistoni, F. Andronico, I. Nardi & G. Barsacchi-Pilone, 1982. Chromosomal localization of 18S+28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in evolutionary divergent anuran amphibians. Chromosoma 84: 475–491.Google Scholar
  54. Williams, S.M. & C. Strobeck, 1985. Sister chromatid exchange and the evolution of rDNA spacer length. J. Theor. Biol.116: 625–636.Google Scholar
  55. Wasko A.P., C. Martins, J.M. Wright & P.M. Galetti Jr., 2001. Molecular organization of 5S rDNA in fishes of the genus Brycon. Genome 44: 893–902.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de BiociênciasUniversidade Estadual PaulistaBotucatu, SPBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Genética e EvoluçãoUniversidade Federal de São CarlosSão Carlos, SPBrazil

Personalised recommendations