Biotechnology Letters

, Volume 23, Issue 23, pp 1963–1969 | Cite as

Factorial design and response surface optimization of crude violacein for Chromobacterium violaceum production

  • Armando S. Mendes
  • João E. de Carvalho
  • Marta C.T. Duarte
  • Nelson Durán
  • Roy E. Bruns


Initially an eleven variable, sixteen assay 215−11 fractional factorial design, was used to determine the key factors in the production of violacein produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, CCT 3496. Subsequently five and three factor central composite designs were executed to determine response surfaces with the aim of optimizing cellular mass and crude violacein production. The 7.5 g l−1 dry cell mass and 0.17 g l−1 crude violacein productions obtained with our initial culture medium were increased to 21 g l−1 and 0.43 g l−1, respectively, for a medium investigated in the three factor design.

Chromobacterium violaceum, experimental design fermentation broth medium optimization violacein 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armando S. Mendes
    • 1
  • João E. de Carvalho
    • 1
  • Marta C.T. Duarte
    • 2
  • Nelson Durán
    • 3
  • Roy E. Bruns
    • 4
  1. 1.Pharmacology Department, Faculdade de Ci^encias Médicas (FCM)Brazil
  2. 2.Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agricolas (CPQBA)Brazil
  3. 3.Physical Chemistry Department, Instituto de Química (IQ), Biological Chemistry LaboratoryBrazil
  4. 4.Physical Chemistry Department, Instituto de Química, Instituto de Química (IQ)Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil

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