Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 83–97

Initiation and Maintenance of Exercise Behavior in Older Women: Predictors from the Social Learning Model

  • Mark D. Litt
  • Alison Kleppinger
  • James O. Judge
Article

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent to which modifiable social learning constructs predicted long-term adherence to an exercise program in older individuals. Participants were 189 women aged 59 to 78 years and diagnosed with low bone density. Exercise behavior was assessed at 3-month intervals. Self-efficacy, readiness for change, orientation toward exercise, social support in general, and support specifically for exercise were measured at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. Analyses indicated that initial adoption of exercise behavior was best predicted by readiness to change. Maintenance was predicted by self-efficacy for exercise, and exercise behavior at 12 months was predicted by social support for exercise. The results were seen as supportive of the stages and processes of change model of health behavior change. Implications of the findings for interventions to enhance adoption and maintenance of exercise programs by older women are discussed.

exercise adherence geriatrics processes and stages of change model 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Babor, T. F., Brown, J., and Del Boca, F. K. (1990). Validity of self-reports in applied research on addictive behaviors: Fact or fiction? Behav. Assessm. 12: 1–27.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychol. Rev. 84: 191–215.Google Scholar
  3. Bravo, G., Gauthier, P., Roy, P. M., Payette, H., and Gaulin, P. (1997). A weight-bearing, waterbased exercise program for osteopenic women: Its impact on bone, functional fitness, and well-being. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 78: 1375–1380.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models and the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychol. 7: 269–297.Google Scholar
  5. Cutrona, C. E., and Russell, D.W. (1987). The provisions of social relationships and adaptation to stress. Advances in Personal Relationships 1: 37–67.Google Scholar
  6. DiClimente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., Fairhurst, S., Velicer, W. F., Velasquez, M., and Rossi, J. S. (1991). The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 59: 295–304.Google Scholar
  7. Dishman, R. K. (1982). Health psychology and exercise adherence. Quest 33: 116–180.Google Scholar
  8. Lord, S. R., Ward, J. A., Williams, P., and Strudwick, M. (1995). The effect of a 12-month exercise trial on balance, strength, and falls in older women: A randomized controlled trial. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 43: 1198–1206.Google Scholar
  9. Marcus, B. H., Rakowski, W., and Rossi, J. S. (1992a). Assessing motivational readiness and decision making for exercise. Health Psychol. 11: 257–261.Google Scholar
  10. Marcus, B. H., Rossi, J. S., Selby, V. C., Niaura, R. S., and Abrams, D. B. (1992b). The stages and processes of exercise adoption and maintenance in a worksite sample. Health Psychol. 11: 385–395.Google Scholar
  11. Marcus, B. H., Selby, V. C., Niaura, R. S., and Rossi, J. S. (1992c). Self-efficacy and the stages of exercise behavior change. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 63: 60–66.Google Scholar
  12. Marcus, B. H., and Simkin, L. R. (1993). The stages of exercise behavior. J. Sports Med. Fitness 33: 83–88.Google Scholar
  13. McAuley, E. (1992). The role of efficacy cognitions in the prediction of exercise behavior in middle-aged adults. J. Behav. Med. 15: 65–88.Google Scholar
  14. McAuley, E. (1993). Self-efficacy and the maintenance of exercise participation in older adults. J. Behav. Med. 16: 103–113. Exercise Behavior in Older Women 97Google Scholar
  15. McAuley, E., Katula, J., Mihalko, S. L., Blissmer, B., Duncan, T. E., Pena, M., and Dunn, E. (1999). Model of physical activity and self-efficacy in older adults: A latent growth curve analysis. J. Geront. Psychol. Sci. 54B: P283–P292.Google Scholar
  16. McAuley, E., Poag, K., Gleason, A., and Wraith, S. (1990). Attrition from exercise programs: Attributional and affective perspectives. J. Soc. Behav. Personal. 5: 591–602.Google Scholar
  17. Meuleman, J. R., Brechue, W. F., Kubilis, P. S., and Lowenthal, D. T. (2000). Exercise training in the debilitated aged: Strength and functional outcomes. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab. 81: 312–318.Google Scholar
  18. Miller, W. R., and Rollnick, S. (1991). Motivational Interviewing. Preparing People to Change Addictive Behavior, Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Minor, M. A., and Brown, J. D. (1993). Exercise maintenance of persons with arthritis after participation in a class experience. Health Educ. Q. 20: 83–85.Google Scholar
  20. Mischel, W. (1973). Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychol. Rev. 80: 252–283.Google Scholar
  21. Oka, R. K., King, A. C., and Young, D. R. (1995). Sources of social support as predictors of exercise adherence in women and men ages 50 to 65 years. Women's Health 1: 161–175.Google Scholar
  22. Oldridge, N. B. (1982). Compliance and exercise in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: A review. Prev. Med. 11: 56–70.Google Scholar
  23. Prochaska, J. O., and DiClimente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change in smoking: Towards an integrative model of change. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 51: 390–395.Google Scholar
  24. Rhodes, E. C., Martin, A. D., Taunton, J. E., Donnelly, M., Warren, J., and Elliot, J. (2000). Effects of one year of resistance training on the relation between muscular strength and bone density in elderly women. Br. J. Sports Med. 34: 18–22.Google Scholar
  25. Rhodes, R. E., Martin, A. D., Taunton, J. E., Rhodes, E. C., Donnelly, M., Warren, J., and Elliot, J. (1999). Factors associated with exercise adherence among older adults. An individual perspective. Sports Med. 28: 397–411.Google Scholar
  26. Sallis, J. F., Grossman, R. M., Pinski, R. B., Patterson, T. L., and Nader, P. R. (1987). Prev. Med. 16: 825–836.Google Scholar
  27. Simmons, V., and Hansen, P. D. (1996). Effectiveness of water exercise on postural mobility in the well elderly: An experimental study on balance enhancement. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 51: M233–M238.Google Scholar
  28. Taaffe, D. R., Pruitt, L., Pyka, G., Guido, D., and Marcus, R. (1996). Comparative effects of high-and low-intensity resistance training on thigh muscle strength, fiber area, and tissue composition in elderly women. Clin. Physiol. 16: 381–392.Google Scholar
  29. Wolff, I., van Croonenborg, J. J., Kemper, H. C., Kostense, P. J., and Twisk, J. W. (1999). The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass:Ameta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre-and postmenopausal women. Osteoporos. Int. 9: 1–12.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Litt
    • 1
  • Alison Kleppinger
    • 1
  • James O. Judge
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral Sciences and Community Health MC 3910University of Connecticut Health CenterFarmington

Personalised recommendations