Aquatic Ecology

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 3–19 | Cite as

Analysis of coastal lagoon metabolism as a basis for management

  • P. Duarte
  • J.M. Bernardo
  • A.M. Costa
  • F. Macedo
  • G. Calado
  • L. Cancela da Fonseca

Abstract

This work was carried out in a shallow eutrophic coastal lagoon (St. André lagoon, SW Portugal) which is artificially opened to the sea each year in early spring. Macrophytes, mainly Ruppia cirrhosa, are keystone species in this ecosystem covering up to 60% of its total area with peak biomasses over 500 g DW m−2. The main objectives were to study ecosystem metabolism, to evaluate the metabolic contribution to the community of the macrophyte stands and their influence in the development of thermal stratification and bottom oxygen depletion.

The work combined an experimental and a modelling methodology. The experimental approach included open water, mesocosm and microcosm seasonal experiments. During these experiments several physical, chemical and biological parameters were monitored in the lagoon and in plastic enclosures (mesocosms) for periods of 24 hours. The microcosm experiments followed the light-dark bottle technique. The simultaneous use of these different methodologies allowed the analysis of the contribution of the planktonic and benthic compartments to the ecosystem's oxygen budget.

The modelling work was based on the mathematical simulation of heat and gas exchanges in a vertically resolved water column, under different macrophyte densities. Several simulations were carried out, in order to investigate the importance of the macrophytes in the development of water column stratification and anoxia.

The simulation results suggest that macrophytes may greatly influence thermocline and oxycline development. This influence is proportional to their biomass and canopy height. It is suggested that controlled macrophyte biomass removal of up to 25% of available biomass in summer, may be useful in preventing bottom anoxia without compromising benthic net primary production.

mesocsom microcosm modelling primary productivity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. A.P.H.A. (1992) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th. Edition. American Public Health Organisation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes RSK (1980) Coastal Lagoons. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Bernardo JM, Costa AM and Cancela da Fonseca L (1988). Nutrient dynamics and dystrophy in a brackish coastal lagoon (St. André, SW Portugal). Rapp Comm Int Mer Médit 31: 61Google Scholar
  4. Bernardo JM (1990) Dinâmica de uma lagoa costeira eutrófica (Lagoa de Santo André). PhD Dissertation, University of LisbonGoogle Scholar
  5. Brix H and Lyngby JE (1985) Uptake and translocation of phosphorus in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Mar Biol 90: 111–116Google Scholar
  6. Brock TD (1981) Calculating solar radiation for ecological studies. Ecol Modelling 14: 1–9Google Scholar
  7. Calado GJP (1997) Desenvolvimento de um modelo de produção de Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande. Aplicação à Lagoa de Santo André. Ms Dissertation, New University of LisbonGoogle Scholar
  8. Calado GJP and Duarte P (2000) Modelling growth of Ruppia cirrhosa. Aquatic Bot 68: 29–44Google Scholar
  9. Cancela da Fonseca LMQ (1989) Estudo da influência da ‘abertura ao mar’ sobre um sistema lagunar costeiro: A Lagoa de Santo André. PhD Dissertation, University of LisbonGoogle Scholar
  10. Cancela da Fonseca LMQ, Costa AM and Bernardo JM (1989) Seasonal variation of benthic and fish communities in a shallow land-locked coastal lagoon (St. André, SW Portugal). Sci Mar 53: 663–669Google Scholar
  11. D'Avanzo, C. and Kremer JN (1994) Diel oxygen dynamics and anoxic events in an eutrophic estuary of Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. Estuaries 17: 131–139Google Scholar
  12. Duarte P and Ferreira JG (1997) Dynamic modelling of photosynthesis in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Environ Model Assessment 2: 83–93Google Scholar
  13. Emerson S, Quay P, Stump C, Wilbur D., and Schudlich R (1993) Determining primary production from the mesoscale oxygen field. ICES Mar Sci Symp 197: 196–206Google Scholar
  14. Ferreira JG (1995) EcoWin-An Object-oriented Ecological Model for Aquatic Ecosystems. Ecol Modelling 79: 21–34Google Scholar
  15. Harlin MM (1995) Changes in major plant groups following nutrient enrichement. In: McComb AJ (ed.) Eutrophic Estuaries and Lagoons. CRC Press, London, pp. 173–188Google Scholar
  16. Hervé P and Bruslé J (1981) L'Étang de Canet-Saint-Nazaire (P.O.), écologie génerale et ichthyofaune. Vie Milieu 31: 17–25Google Scholar
  17. Heydorn AEF and Tinley KL (1980) Estuaries of the Cape, Part I. Synopsis of the Cape Coast. Natural features, dynamics and utilization. C.S.I.R. Res Rep 380: 1–97Google Scholar
  18. Hornberger GM and Kelly MG (1975) Atmospheric reaeration in a river using productivity analysis. J Environ Eng Div ASCE 101: 729–739Google Scholar
  19. ICES (1996) Report of the working group on phytoplankton ecology. International Council for the Exploitation of the Sea. Biological Oceanography Committee. ICES CM 1996/L: 3Google Scholar
  20. Janowitz GS and Kamykowski D. (1991) An eulerian model of phytoplankton photosynthetic response in the upper mixed layer. J Plankton Res 13: 983–1002Google Scholar
  21. Kemp WM and Boynton WR (1980) Influence of biological and physical processes on dissolved oxygen dynamics in an estuarine system: Implications for measurement of community metabolism. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci 11: 407–431Google Scholar
  22. Khailov KM and Burlakova ZP (1969) Release of dissolved organic matter by marine seaweeds and distribution of their total organic production to inshore communities. Limnol Oceanogr 14: 521–527Google Scholar
  23. Knauss JA (1997) Introduction to Physical Oceanography. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  24. Kosinski RJ (1984) A comparison of the accuracy and precision of several open-water oxygen productivity techniques. Hydrobiologia 119: 139–148Google Scholar
  25. Krebs CJ (1994) Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, 4th ed. Harper Collins College Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Libes SM (1992) An Introduction to Marine Biogeochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Likens GE (1975) Primary production of inland aquatic ecosystems. In: Helmuth Lieth H & Whittaker R (eds.) Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 185–202Google Scholar
  28. Macedo MF, Duarte P, Mendes P and Ferreira JG 2001. Annual variation of environmental variables, phytoplankton species composition and photosynthetic parameters in a Coastal Lagoon. J Plankton Res 23: 719–732Google Scholar
  29. Marcomini A, Sfriso A, Pavoni, B and Orio AA (1995) Eutrophication of the Lagoon of Venice: Nutrient loads and exchanges. In: McComb AJ (ed.), Eutrophic Shallow Estuaries and Lagoons. CRC Press, London, pp. 59–80Google Scholar
  30. Menéndez M and Comín FA (1989) Seasonal patterns of biomass variation of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande and Potamogeton pectinatus L in a coastal lagoon. In: Ros, J. D. (Ed.) Topics in marine biology. Sci Mar 53: 633–638Google Scholar
  31. Menéndez M and Peñuelas J. (1993) Sesonal photosynthetic and respiratory responses of Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande to changes in light and temperature. Arch Hydrobiol 129: 221–230Google Scholar
  32. Murray L and Wetzel RW (1987) Oxygen production and consumption associated with the major autotrophic components in two temperate seagrass communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 38: 231–239Google Scholar
  33. Odum HT (1956) Primary production in flowing waters. Limnol Oceanogr 1: 102–117Google Scholar
  34. Odum E (1971) Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders Company, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Oviatt CA, Rudnick DT, Keller AA, Sampou PA and Almquist GT (1986) A comparison of system (O2 and CO2) and C-14 measurements of metabolism in estuarine mesocosms). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 28: 57–67Google Scholar
  36. Portela LI and Neves R. (1994) Modelling temperature distribution in the shallow Tejo estuary. In: Tsakiris & Santos (ed.), Advances in Water Resources Technology and Management. Balkema, Rotterdam pp. 457–463Google Scholar
  37. Postma H (1981) Processes in the sediments and in the water-sediment interface. UNESCO Tech Pap Mar Sci 33: 111–117Google Scholar
  38. Price JF and Weller RA (1986) Diurnal cycling: observations and models of the upper ocean response to diurnal heating, and wind mixing. J Geophys Res 91: 8411–8427Google Scholar
  39. Reyes E and Merino M. (1991) Diel disolved oxygen dynamics and eutrophication in a shallow, web-mixed tropical lagoon (CancÚn, México). Estuaries 14: 372–381Google Scholar
  40. Short FT and McRoy CP (1984) Nitrogen uptake by leaves and roots of the seagrass Zostera marina L. Bot Mar 27: 547–555Google Scholar
  41. Steemann Nielsen E (1962) Inactivation of the photochemical mechanism in photosynthesis as a means to protect cells against high light intensities. Physiol Plant 15: 161–171Google Scholar
  42. Strickland JDH and Parsons TR (1968) A practical handbook of sea water analysis. Fish Res Bd Canada Bull 16: 311 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Taylor AH (1993) Modelling climatic interactions of the marine biota. In: Willebrand & Anderson (ed.), Modelling Oceanic Climate Interactions. NATO ASI Series, Springer-Verlag, Berlin pp. 373–413Google Scholar
  44. Thornton JA, Beekman H, Boddington G, Dick R, Harding WR, Lief M, Morrison IR and Quick AJR (1995) The ecology and management of Zandvlei (Cape Province, South Africa), an enriched shallow African estuary. In: McComb AJ (ed.), Eutrophic Shallow Estuaries and Lagoons. CRC Press, London, pp. 109–128Google Scholar
  45. Thursby GB and Harlin M.M. (1984) Interaction of leaves and roots of Ruppia maritima in the uptake of phosphate, ammonia and nitrate. Mar Biol 83: 61–67Google Scholar
  46. Veiga de Oliveira E, Galhano F and Pereira B (1975). Actividades Agro-Marítimas em Portugal. Instituto de Alta Cultura, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  47. Vollenweider RA (1974) A Manual on Methods for Measuring Primary Productivity in Aquatic Environments. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Duarte
  • J.M. Bernardo
  • A.M. Costa
  • F. Macedo
  • G. Calado
  • L. Cancela da Fonseca

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations