Advertisement

Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 3–21 | Cite as

Regulation of essential oil production in plants

  • N.S. Sangwan
  • A.H.A. Farooqi
  • F. Shabih
  • R.S. Sangwan
Article

Abstract

This review provides a summary of the physiological dynamics andregulation of essential oil production, from the literature and availableinformation on diverse volatile oil crops. Essential oil production is highlyintegrated with the physiology of the whole plant and so depends on themetabolic state and preset developmental differentiation programme of thesynthesising tissue. Essential oil productivity is ecophysiologically andenvironmentally friendly. These and other aspects of the modulation ofessentialoil production are presented, along with a brief outline of the current conceptof the relevant biosynthetic mechanisms.

Aromatic plants Essential oils Phenylpropanoids Terpenoids 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abou Zied M.N. and Sherbeany S.S. 1971. Effect of CCC on flower production and volatile oil of Matricaria chamomilla L. Z. Pflazenphysiol. 65: 35–38.Google Scholar
  2. Akhila A., Tyagi B.R. and Naqvi A. 1987. Variation of essential oil constituents in C. martinii Wats var. motia at different stages of plant growth. Ind. Perfumer. 28: 126–128.Google Scholar
  3. Ansari S.H., Qadry J.S. and Jain V.K. 1988. Effect of plant hormones on the growth and chemical composition of volatile oil of Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Schutt). Ind. J. forestry. 11: 143–145.Google Scholar
  4. Ansari S.R., Frooqi A.H.A. and Sharma S. 1998. Interspecific variation in sodium and potassium ion accumulation and essential oil metabolism in three Cymbopogon species raised under sodium chloride stress. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 10: 413–418.Google Scholar
  5. Beech D.F. 1977. Growth and oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) in the old irrigation area, western Australia. Aust. J. Exptl. Agric. Anim. Husb. 17: 301–307.Google Scholar
  6. Bhattacharaya A.K., Kaul P.N., Rao B.R.R., Ramesh, S. and Mallavarpu G.R. 1993. Composition of the rose scented geranium (Pelargonium spp) grown under the semi arid tropical climate of south India. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 5: 229–231.Google Scholar
  7. Bhatttacharya A.K. and Rao B.R.R. 1996. Effect of triacontanol and mixtalol on rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). J. Essential. Oil. Res. 8: 383–388.Google Scholar
  8. Bommegowda A., Narayana M.R., K.K. and Krishnamoorthy K.K. 1981. Nitrogen fertilizer use in Java citronella. Mysore. J. Agric. Sci. 15: 60–62.Google Scholar
  9. Bosela K.H.A. and Smyk G.K. 1977. Biomorphological changes in Mentha piperita L. and M. crispak under the effect of growth stimulators. Ukr. Bot. 34: 95–99.Google Scholar
  10. Bowmeester H.J., Daires J.A.R., Smid H.G. and Welten R.S.A. 1995. Physiological limitations to carvone yield in Caraway (Carum carvi L.). Industrial Crops and Products. 4: 39–51.Google Scholar
  11. Burbott A.J. and Loomis W.D. 1969. Evidence of metabolic turnover of monoterpenes In peppermint. Plant. Physiology. 44: 173–179.Google Scholar
  12. Caskill D. and Croteau R. 1995. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in glandular trichomes of peppermint (Mentha piperita) rely exclusively on plastid derived isopentenyl diphosphate. Planta. 197: 49–56.Google Scholar
  13. Chalchat J.-C., Garry R.-P. and Lamy J. 1994. Influence of harvest time on yield and composition of Artemisia annua oil produced in France. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 6: 261–268.Google Scholar
  14. Chappell J. 1995. Biochemistry and molecular biology of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. Ann. Rev. Plant. Physiol. Mol. Biol. 46: 521–547.Google Scholar
  15. Charles D.J., Joly R.-J. and Simon J.E. 1990. Effect of osmotic stress on the essential oil content and comparison of peppermint. Phytochemistry. 2: 2837–2840.Google Scholar
  16. Chattopadhyay A. and Subramanyam K. 1993. Changes in oil yield of C. wintrianus suffering from iron chlorosis. J. Ind. Soc. Soil. 41: 166–167.Google Scholar
  17. Clark R.J. and Menary R.C. 1980. Environmental effects on peppermint (M. piperita L) Effect of day length, photon flux densituy, night and day temperature on yield and composition of peppermint oil. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 7: 685–692.Google Scholar
  18. Coronel V.O., Anzaldo F.E. and Recano M.P. 1984. Effect of moisture content on the essential oil yield of lemongrass and citronella. NSTA. Tech. J. 9: 26–28.Google Scholar
  19. Croteau R., Felton M., Karp F. and Kijonwas R. 1981. Relationship of camphor biosynthesis to leaf development in Sage (Salvia off?nalis). Plant. Physiol. 67: 820–824.Google Scholar
  20. Croteau R. 1977. Site of monoterpene biosynthesis in Majorama hortensis leaves. Plant. Physiol. 59: 519–520.Google Scholar
  21. Croteau R. and Johnson M.A. 1984. Biosynthesis of terpenoids in glandular trichomes. In: Rodriguez E., Healey P.L. and Mehta I. (eds), Biology and Chemistry of Plant Trichomes. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 135–185.Google Scholar
  22. Dell B. and Comb J.A. 1978. Plant resins, their formation, secretion and possible functions. Adv. Bot. Res. 6: 276–316.Google Scholar
  23. Dey B.B. and Chaudhary M.A. 1983. Effect of leaf development stage on changes in essential oil of Ocimum sanctum. Biochem. Physiol. Pflanzen. 178: 331–335.Google Scholar
  24. Dhar R.S. and Dhar A.K. 1997. Ontogenic variation in the essential oil concentration and its constituents in the five genotypes of Cymbopogon jwarankusa Schultz. J. Essen. Oil Res. 9: 433–439.Google Scholar
  25. Duhan S.P.S., Singh V.P. and Bhattacharya A. 1997. Effect of gibberrellic acid on the growth, yield and quality of Mentha citrata oil. Ind. Perfumer 41: 239–243.Google Scholar
  26. Duke S.O. and Paul R.N. 1993. Development and fine structure of the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. Int. J. Plant. Sci. 154: 107–118.Google Scholar
  27. Dutta L. and Dutta N. 1976. Effect of nitrogen fertilizers on yield and quality of citronella oil. Ind. J. Agric. Chem. 9: 67–72.Google Scholar
  28. Duriyaprapan S. and Britten E.J. 1982. The effect of age and location of leaf on quantity and quality of Japanese mint oil production. J. Exp. Bot. 33: 810–814.Google Scholar
  29. Duriyaprapan S., Britten E.J. and Basford K.E. 1986. The effect of temperature on growth, oil yield and oil quality of Japanese mint. Ann. Bot. 58: 729–736.Google Scholar
  30. Eid M.N.A. and Ahmed S.S. 1976. Preliminary studies on the effect of GA3 and CCC on growth and essential oil content of Ocimum basilicum L. Egypt. J. Hort. 3: 83–87.Google Scholar
  31. Eid M.M. and Rofaeel I.S. 1980. Effect of B-9 and CCC on growth and essential oil of geranium (Pelargnium graveolens L). Res. Bull. (Ain Shams Univ). 1238: 1–14.Google Scholar
  32. El-Keltawi N.E. and Croteau R. 1986. Influence of phosphon D and cycocel on growth and essential oil content of peppermint and sage. Phytochemistry. 25: 1285–1288.Google Scholar
  33. El-Keltawi N.E. and Croteau R. 1987. Influence of foliar applied cytokinins on growth and essential oil content of several members of Lamiaceae. Phytochemistry. 26: 891–895.Google Scholar
  34. El-Khateeb M.A. 1994. Effect of some growth regulators on growth, fruit yield and essential oil in dill plant. Bull. Fac. Agric. Univ. Cairo. 45: 187–205.Google Scholar
  35. Ellabbon H.M.L. 1973. Effect of cyocel and spacing on the growth and volatile oil of Cymbopogon citratus. Sci. Hort. 8: 237–242.Google Scholar
  36. Fahn A. 1988. Secretory tissues in plants. New. Phytol. 108: 229–257.Google Scholar
  37. Fahlen A., Welander M. and Wennersten R. 1997. Effects of lighttemperature regimes on plant growth and essential oil yield of selected aromatic plants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 73: 111–119.Google Scholar
  38. Farooqi A.H.A. and Sharma S. 1988. Effect of growth retardants on growth and essential oil content in Japanese mint. Plant Growth Regulation. 7: 39–45.Google Scholar
  39. Farooqi A.H.A. and Sharma S. 1990. Effect of chloroethyl phosphonoc acid on economic yield of damask rose (Rosa damacena). Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 60: 691–692.Google Scholar
  40. Farooqi A.H.A., Sharma S., Naqvi A.A. and Khan A. 1993. The effect of kinetin on flower and oil production in Rosa damascena. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 5: 305–309.Google Scholar
  41. Farooqi A.H.A., Shukla Y.N., Sharma S. and Bansal R.P. 1994. Relationship between gibberllin and cytokinin activity and flowering in Rosa damascena Mill. Plant Growth Regulation. 14: 109–113.Google Scholar
  42. Farooqi A.H.A., Shukla A., Sharma S. and Khan A. 1996. Effect of plant age and GA3 on artemisinin and essential oil yield in Artemisia annua L. J. Herbs. Spices. Med. Plants. 4: 73–80.Google Scholar
  43. Farooqi A.H.A., Ansari S.R., Kumar R., Sharma S. and Fatima S. 1998. Response of different genotypes of citronella Java (C. winterianus) to water stress. Plant. Physiol. Biochem. 25: 172–175.Google Scholar
  44. Farooqi A.H.A., Sangwan N.S. and Sangwan R.S. 1999. Effect of photoperiodic regimes on growth, flowering and essential oil in Mentha species. Plant Growth Regulation. 29: 181–187.Google Scholar
  45. Ferreira J.F.S., Simon J.E. and Janick J. 1995. Developmental studies of Artemisia annua: Flowering and artemisinin production under greenhouse and field conditions. Planta. Med. 61: 167–170.Google Scholar
  46. Fleisher A. and Fleisher Z. 1985. Yield and quality of essential oil from Pelargonium graveolens cultivated in Israel. J. Sci. Food. Agric 36: 1047–1150.Google Scholar
  47. Francis M.J.O. 1971. In: Goodwin T.W. (ed.), Aspects of Terpenoid Chemistry and Biochemistry. Academic Press, London, p. 29.Google Scholar
  48. Gupta S.C. 1996. Variation in herbage yield, oil yield and major component of various Ocimum species/ varieties (chemotypes) harvested at different stages of maturity. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 8: 275–279.Google Scholar
  49. Halva S., Craker L.E., Simon J.E. and Charles D.J. 1992a. Light levels, growth and essential oil in dill (Anethum graveolens L.). J. Herbs. Spices. Med. Plants. 1: 47–58.Google Scholar
  50. Halva S., Craker L.E., Simon J.E. and Charles D.J. 1992b. Light quality, growth and essential oil in dill (Anethum graveolens L.). J. Herbs. Spices. Med. Plants. 1: 59–69.Google Scholar
  51. Henderson W., Wart J.W., How P. and Judge J. 1970. Chemical and morphological studies on sites of sesquiterpene accumulation in Pogostemon cablin. Phytochemistry. 9: 1219–1228.Google Scholar
  52. Herath H.M.W. and Ormrod D.P. 1979. Photosynthetic rates of citronella and lemongrass. Plant. Physiol 63: 406–408.Google Scholar
  53. Herath H.M.W., Iruthayathas E.E. and Ormrod D.P. 1979. Temperature effect on essential oil composition of citronella selections. Economic. Bot. 349: 425–430.Google Scholar
  54. Herrmann K.M. 1995. The shikimate pathway: Early steps in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. Plant. Cell. 7: 907–919.Google Scholar
  55. Herman P.I. and Marks M.D. 1989. Trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Isolation and complementation of GLABRUUSI gene. Dev. Genet. 9: 73–89.Google Scholar
  56. Holm Y., Laakso I., Hiltunen R. and Galambosi B. 1997. Variations in the essential composition of Artemisia annua L. of different origin cultivated in Finland. Flavour Fragrance J. 12: 241–246.Google Scholar
  57. Hughes S.G., Bryant J.A. and Smirnoff N. 1989. Molecular biological application to studies of stress tolerance. In: Hamlyn G.J., Flowers T.J. and Jones M.B. (eds), Plants under Stress. Cambridge Univ Press, New York, pp. 131–135.Google Scholar
  58. Iliev L., Zlatev S., Vasilev G. and Zlatev M. 1979. Influence of some cytokinene of purine and urea type derivatives on the productivity of mint. In: Ber Sym. Wiss, Koordinierungs konf. 12th edn. H R Ficher, Schnetta, pp. 316–321.Google Scholar
  59. Iruthayathas E.E. and Herath H.M.W. 1975. Investigations on lemongrass and citronella. In: Proc Agric Res Seminar Faculty of Agricult Univ SriLanka Peradeniya., Srilanka.Google Scholar
  60. Iruthayathas E.E. and Herath H.M.W. 1982. Microhairs of citronella leaves and their relationship to components of citronella oil. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 59: 227.Google Scholar
  61. Khosla M.K., Bradu B.L. and Thapa R.K. 1989. Biogenetic studies on the inheritance of different essential oil constituents of Ocimum species, their F1 hybrids and synthesized allopolyploids. Herba Hungarica. 28: 13–19.Google Scholar
  62. Kokate C.K. and Verma K.C. 1971. Cultivation of lemongrass (C. citratus) and citronella (C. nardus) at Sagar MP. Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 41: 382–385.Google Scholar
  63. Koseva-kovacheva D. and Staev D. 1978. Effect of some growth regulators and hydrogen peroxide on the content and quality of peppermint oil. Resteniedni dni u Nauki. 15: 21–25.Google Scholar
  64. Kumar A. and Abrol I.P. 1994. Effect of gypsum on five tropical grasses grown in normal and extensive sodic soil. Exp. Agricult. 19: 169–177.Google Scholar
  65. Kumar A.A. and Gill K.S. 1995. Performance of aromatic grasses under saline and sodic stress condition. Salt tolerance of aromatic grasses. Indian Perfumer. 39: 39–44.Google Scholar
  66. Lemberkovics E., Petri G., Nguyen H. and Mathe I. 1995. Relationships between essential oil and flavonoid biosynthesis in sweet basil. Acta. Horticulturae. 426: 647–655.Google Scholar
  67. Litchenthaler H.K. 1999. DOXP-pathway of plant isoprenoid biosynthesis. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 45–63.Google Scholar
  68. Lewinsohn E., Dudai N., Tadmor Y., Katzir I., Ravid U., Putievsky E. et al. 1998. Localization of citral accumulation in lemongrass leaves (C. citratus DC Stapf Poaceae). Ann. Bot. 81: 85–89.Google Scholar
  69. Maffei M. and Codignola A. 1990. Photosynthesis, photorespiration and herbicide effect on terpene production in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). J. Essential. Oil. Res. 2: 275–286.Google Scholar
  70. Maffei M., Marisa G. and Tommaso S. 1986. Glandular trichomes and essential oil of developing leaves in M. virdis lavandulidora. Planta. Med. 3: 187–193.Google Scholar
  71. Malwatkar G.M., Kokaji B.A. and Kelkar G.D. 1984. Seasonal variation in aldehyde content in oil, leaf browning and crinkling in Java citronella. Indian Perfumer. 28: 17–23.Google Scholar
  72. Mishra A. and Srivastava N.K. 1991. Effect of tricontanol formulation ‘Miraculan’ on photosynthesis, growth, nutient uptake and essential oil yield of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). Plant Growth Regul. 10: 57–63.Google Scholar
  73. Mohmoud S.E.D.M. 1995. Responses of growth and essential oil content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) to some natural hormones. In: International Symp Med Arom Plants. Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  74. Nandi R.P. and Chatterjee S.K. 1991. Improved cultivation and distillation methods, followed by citronella plantations of Darjeeling hills. Indian Perfumer. 35: 80–85.Google Scholar
  75. Nishizawa A., Honda G. and Tabata M. 1989. Determination of fi-nal steps in the biosynthesis of essential oil components in Perilla frutescens. Planta. Med. 55: 251–252.Google Scholar
  76. Olszewska-Kaczynska I. and Suchorska K. 1996. Characterization of terragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) cultivated in Poland. Herba Polanica. 42: 5–10.Google Scholar
  77. Orlova L.M. 1984. Principles of essential oil rose nutrition determined by leaf analysis. Ref. Zhur. (1985) 5: 569.Google Scholar
  78. Pareek S.K., Saxena B.B., Maheshwari M.C. and Gupta R. 1981. Study of palmarosa oil grown for higher yield of oil and its quality under cultivation. Indian Perfumer. 25: 64–70.Google Scholar
  79. Patnaik J. and Debata B.K. 1997. Regeneration of plantlets from NaCl tolerant callus lines of C. martinii (Roxb). Wats. Plant. Sci. 128: 67–74.Google Scholar
  80. Penka M. 1978. Influence of irrigation on the contents of effective substances in officinal plant. Acta. Hort. 73: 181–198.Google Scholar
  81. Pitarevic I., Kuftinec J., Blazevic N. and Kustrak D. 1984. Seasonal variation of essential oil yield and composition of dalmatian sage. J. Nat. Prod. 47: 409–412.Google Scholar
  82. Pogorelskaya A.N., Kholodova V.P. and Renikova S.A. 1980. Physiological aspects of essential oil accumulation in petals of the flower of essential oil. Sov. Plant Physiol. 27: 279–284.Google Scholar
  83. Porter N.G. and Lammerink J.P. 1994. Effect of temperature on the relative densities of essential oils and water. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 6: 269–277.Google Scholar
  84. Prakasa Rao E.V.S., Rao R.S.G. and Ramesh S. 1995. Seasonal variation in oil content and its composition in two chemotypes of scented geranim (Pelaronium spp). J. Essential Oil Res. 7: 159–163.Google Scholar
  85. Putievsky E., Ravid U. and Dudai N. 1986. The influence of season and harvest frequency on essential oil and herbal yields from a pure clone of sage grown under cultivated conditions. J. Nat. Prod. 49: 326–329.Google Scholar
  86. Putievsky E., Ravid U. and Dudai N. 1990. The effect of water stress on yield components and essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 2: 111–114.Google Scholar
  87. Rao E.V.S.P., Narayana M.R., Singh M. and Puttanna K. 1983. Effect of NP and K fertilizers on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in Java citronella (C. winterianus Jowitt). Z. Acker und Pfanzenbau. 152: 279–283.Google Scholar
  88. Rao E.V.S.P. and Singh M. 1991. Long term studies on yield relation to nitrogen application. J. Esst. Oil. Res. 3: 119–424.Google Scholar
  89. Rao B.R.R., Bhattacharya A.K., Singh K., Kaul P.N. and Singh C.P. 1997. Growth, biomass production and essential oil profile of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) as influenced by plant growth regulators. Pafai. J. 19: 11–14.Google Scholar
  90. Rodriguez E., Healy P.L. and Mehta I. (eds) 1984. Biology and Chemistry of Plant Trichomes. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  91. Sakata I. and Mitsui T. 1980. Seasonal variation in menthyl glucoside, menthol, menthone and related monoterpenes in developing Japanese peppermint. J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Japan. 54: 1037–1043.Google Scholar
  92. Samiullah, Varshney A.K., Afridi M.M.R.K., Mohmmad F. and Afaq S.H. 1988. Nitrogen requirements of lemongrass for optimum performance in Uttar Pradesh. Indian Perfumer. 32: 225–228.Google Scholar
  93. Sangwan N.K., Dhindsa K.S., Malik O.P., Sharma G.D. and Paroda R.S. 1982. Quantitative changes in levels of essential oil in C. martinii var motia during different growth stages and on ageing the harvested crop in field and Laboratory. In: Proc Nat Sem Med Arom, Plants., India.Google Scholar
  94. Sangwan N.S., Luthra R., Sangwan R.S. and Thakur R.S. 1990. Metabolism of monoterpenoids in aromatic plants. Curr. Res. Med. Arom. Plants. 11: 174–197.Google Scholar
  95. Sangwan R.S., Singh N. and Plaxton W.C. 1992a. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and concentration in the endosperm of developing and germinating castor oilseeds. Plant. Physiol. 99: 445–449.Google Scholar
  96. Sangwan R.S., Gauthier D.A., Turpin D.H., Pomeroy M.K. and Plaxton W.C. 1992b. Canola seed and microspore embryo pyruvate kinase isozymes: Developmental profiles and subunit composition. Planta. 187: 198–202.Google Scholar
  97. Sangwan R.S., Sangwan N.S. and Luthra R. 1993a. Metabolism of acyclic monoterpenes. Partial purification and properties of geraniol dehydrogenase from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). J. Plant. Physiol. 142: 129–134.Google Scholar
  98. Sangwan R.S., Farooqi A.H.A., Bansal R.P. and Sangwan N.S. 1993b. Interspecific variation in physiological and metabolic responses of five species of Cymbopogon to water stress. J. Plant. Physiol. 142: 618–622.Google Scholar
  99. Sangwan N.S., Sangwan R.S., Luthra R. and Thakur R.S. 1993c. Geraniol dehydrogenase: A determinant of essential oil quality in lemongrass. Planta. Med. 59: 168–170.Google Scholar
  100. Sangwan N.S., Farooqi A.H.A. and Sangwan R.S. 1994. Effect of drought stress on growth and essential oil metabolism in lemongrasses. New. Phytol. 128: 173–179.Google Scholar
  101. Sangwan N.S., Arora B. and Sangwan R.S. 2001. Spectral modulation of essential oil synthesis in Pelargonium graveolens L. J. Herbs. Spices. Med. Plants. (in press).Google Scholar
  102. Sastry T.C.S. and Kavathekar K.Y. 1990. Plants for Reclaimation of Wastelands. PID (CSIR), New Delhi, 218 p.Google Scholar
  103. Schiefelbein J.W. and Somerville C. 1990. Genetic control of root hair development in Arabidopsis thahana. Plant. Cell. 2: 235–243.Google Scholar
  104. Sergeeva S. and Solzneva V.A. 1979. Essential oil accumulation and changes in its qualitative composition during peppermint ontogeny. Fiziol Biokhim Kult Rast. 11: 268–270.Google Scholar
  105. Shabih F., Farooqi A.H.A., Ansari S.R. and Sharma S. 1999. Effect of water stress on growth and essential oil metabolism in Cymbopogon martinii cultivars. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 11: 491–496.Google Scholar
  106. Sharma S.N., Singh A. and Tripathi A. 1980. Response of palmarosa to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and Zinc. Ind. J. Agron. 25: 719–723.Google Scholar
  107. Shanker S., Ajaykumar P.V., Sangwan N.S., Kumar S. and Sangwan R.S. 1999. Developmental analysis of essential oil gland count and ultrastructure in M. arvensis L. leaf. Biologia. Plant. 42: 379–387.Google Scholar
  108. Simon J.E., Bubenheim D.R., Joly R.J. and Charles D.J. 1992. Water stress induced alterations in essential oil content and composition of sweet basil. J. Essential. Oil. Res. 4: 71–75.Google Scholar
  109. Singh N., Luthra R. and Sangwan R.S. 1989. Effect of leaf position and age on the essential oil quantity and quality in lemongrass. Planta. Med. 55: 214–256.Google Scholar
  110. Singh N., Luthra R. and Sangwan R.S. 1990. Oxidative pathways and essential oil biosynthesis in developing Cymbopogon flexuosus leaves. Plant. Physiol. Biochem. 28: 203–210.Google Scholar
  111. Singh N., Luthra R. and Sangwan R.S. 1991. Mobilization of starch and essential oil biogenesis during leaf ontogeny of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). Plant. Cell. Physiol. 32: 803–811.Google Scholar
  112. Singh K. and Singh D.V. 1992. Effects of rates and sources of nitrogen application on yield and nutrient uptake of Java citronella C. winterianus. Fert. Res. 33: 187–191.Google Scholar
  113. Singh R.S., Pathak M.G. and Bodoli D.W. 1980. Response of Java citronella cultivars to nitrogen under Jorhat conditions. Indian Perfumer. 24: 192–198.Google Scholar
  114. Spring O., Priester T. and Hager S. 1986. Light induced accumulation of sesquiterpene lactones in sunflower seedlings. J. Plant. Physiol. 123: 79–89.Google Scholar
  115. Thomas J. 1995. Lemongrass. In: Chadha K.L. and Gupta R. (eds), In Adv Hort 11, Medicinal and aromatic plants., New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  116. Topalov V. 1964. Studies sur la formation des fleurs de la rose de kazanlik. In: Proc. third. Intl. Essential. Oil. Conf. Plovdiv. Bulgaria., pp. 246–252.Google Scholar
  117. Varma V., Rao P.G., Zutschi U. and Sobti S.N. 1985. An understanding of the factors influencing citral biosynthesis in Cymbopogon khasianus. Indian Drugs. 23: 291–293.Google Scholar
  118. Vostrowsky O., Michaelis K., Ihm H., Zintl R. and Knobloch K. 1981. Uber die komponenten des atherischen ols aus Estragon (Artemisia dracunculus). Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel Untersuchung und Forschung. 173: 365–367.Google Scholar
  119. Voirin B., Brun N. and Bayet C. 1990. Effects of day length on the monoterpene composition of leaves of M piperita. Phytochemistry. 29: 749–755.Google Scholar
  120. Wagner G.J. 1991. Secreting glandular trichomes; more than just hairs. Plant. Physiol. 96: 675–679.Google Scholar
  121. Wallaart T., van Wim U., Lubberink H.G.M., Woerdenbag H.J., Pras N. and Quax W.J. 1999. Isolation and identification of dihydroartemisinic acid from Artemisia annua and its possible role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. J. Nat. Prod. 62: 430–433.Google Scholar
  122. Weiss E.A. 1997. In: Essential Oil Crops. CAB International, pp. 24–58.Google Scholar
  123. Werker E. 1993. Function of essential oils secreting glandular hairs in aromatic plants of the Lamiaceae - a review. Flav. Fragr. J. 8: 249–255.Google Scholar
  124. Werker E., Putievsky E., Ravid U., Dudai N. and Katzir I. 1994. Glandular hairs, secretory cavities, and the essential oil in leaves of tarragon (A. dracunculus L). J. Herbs. Spices. Med. Plants. 2: 19–32.Google Scholar
  125. Yanhe L., Craker L.E. and Polter T. 1995. Effect of light levels on essential oil production of sage (S. off?cinalis) and thyme (T. vulgaris). In: International Symps Med Arom Plants. Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.Google Scholar
  126. Zlatev S., Iliev L., Zlatev M. and Vasiliv G. 1978. Effect of some cytokinin on first material and essential oil yields in peppermint. Raseniev di Nanki. 15: 57–60.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • N.S. Sangwan
    • 1
  • A.H.A. Farooqi
    • 1
  • F. Shabih
    • 1
  • R.S. Sangwan
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants [CIMALucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations