Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 265–281 | Cite as

Evaluating the Effects of Introduced Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) on Native Stream Insects on Kauai Island, Hawaii; Contribution No. 2001-012 to the Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum

  • R.A. Englund
  • D.A. Polhemus


Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonids have been widely stocked into upland streams throughout the world to provide a basis for sport fisheries, but the effects of such introductions on indigenous and endemic aquatic insect assemblages are poorly documented. In this study, we examine the impact of rainbow trout on the indigenous and endemic entomofauna of upland streams in Kokee State Park, Kauai, Hawaii, with particular emphasis on the potential threat trout pose to populations of endemic damselflies in the genus Megalagrion. Rainbow trout were introduced into the upland streams of Kauai beginning in the 1920s, with over 60 years of subsequent restocking. This study indicates, however, that streams in this area still maintain diverse populations of Megalagrion damselflies and other indigenous and endemic aquatic insects, both in catchments containing naturally reproducing trout populations and in catchments lacking rainbow trout. Our results indicate that the indigenous and endemic aquatic insect communities in the streams under study compare favorably in terms of density and taxonomic richness with other isolated and unimpacted streams elsewhere in Hawaii, and retain high densities and relative percentages of indigenous and endemic aquatic insect taxa. Our results demonstrate that the threats posed by conspicuous introduced species such as trout should not simply be assumed a priori on the basis of postulated negative interactions, because this may divert limited resources from programs aimed at control of other, potentially more destructive introduced taxa such as inconspicuous poeciliid fishes.

Megalagrion Odonata introduced species impacts tropical streams aquatic insects 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andrews, S. (1985) Aquatic species introduced to Fiji. Domodomo 3, 67-82.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, L.R., Brasher, A.M., Harvey, B.C. and Matthews, M. (1999) Success and failure of nonindigenous aquatic species in stream systems: case studies from California and Hawaii. In Nonindigenous freshwater organisms: Vectors, biology, and impacts(R. Claudi and J.H. Leach eds), pp. 415-30. CRC Press.Google Scholar
  3. Cadwallader, P.L. (1996) Overview of the impacts of introduced salmonids on Australian native fauna, 64 pp. The Director of National Parks and Wildlife, Australian Nature Conservancy Agency. Canberra, ACT.Google Scholar
  4. Crowl, T.A., Townsend, A.R. and McIntosh, A.R. (1992) The impact of introduced brown and rainbow trout on native fish: The case of Australasia. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 2, 217-41.Google Scholar
  5. Denning, D.G. and Beardsley, J.W. (1967) The collection of Cheumatopsyche analisin Hawaii. Proc. Ent. Soc.Wash. 69, 56-7.Google Scholar
  6. Dudgeon, D. (1999) Tropical Asian streams. 830 pp. Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Englund, R.A. (1999) The impacts of introduced poeciliid fish and Odonata on endemic Megalagrion(Odonata) damselflies on Oahu Island, Hawaii. J. Insect Conserv. 3, 225-43.Google Scholar
  8. Englund, R.A. and Preston, D.J. (1999) Biological Assessment of the Lower Hamakua Ditch on the Hawaiian Stream Fly (Sigmatineurum meaohi) and other aquatic insects, 31 pp. Contribution No. 1999-003 to the Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum.Google Scholar
  9. Evenhuis, N.L. and Polhemus, D.A. (1994) Review of the endemic Hawaiian genus SigmatineurumParent (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 37, 1-19.Google Scholar
  10. Faragher, R.A. (1980) Life cycle of Hemicordulia tauSelys (Odonata: Corduliidae) in Lake Eucumbene, N.S.W., with notes on predation on it by two trout species. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 19, 269-76.Google Scholar
  11. Filbert, R. and Hawkins, C.P. (1995) Variation in condition of rainbow trout in relation to food, temperature, and individual length in the Green River, Utah. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 124, 824-35.Google Scholar
  12. Fletcher, A.R. (1986) Effects of introduced fish in Australia. In Limnology in Australia(P. De Deckker and W.D. Williams eds), pp. 231-8. Dordrecht: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Gargominy, O., Bouchet, P., Pascal, M., Jaffre, T. and Tourneur J.-C. (1996) Consequences des introductions d'especes animales et vegetales sur la biodiversitie en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51, 375-402.Google Scholar
  14. Hardy, D.E. (1960) Insects of Hawaii, Volume 10, Diptera: Nematocera-Brachycera. 368 pp. University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hazlett, R.W. and Hyndman, D.W. (1996) Roadside geology of Hawaii, 307 pp. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana.Google Scholar
  16. Howarth, F.G. and Polhemus, D.A. (1991) A review of the Hawaiian stream insect fauna. In New directions in research, management, and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems, Proceedings of the 1990 Symposium on Freshwater Stream Biology and Management, State of Hawaii, pp. 40-51. Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  17. Hynes, H.B.N. (1970) The ecology of running waters. 555 pp. Liverpool University Press, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  18. Kido, M.H., Heacock, D.E. and Asquith, A. (1999) Alien rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) diet in Hawaiian streams. Pac. Sci. 53, 242-51.Google Scholar
  19. Kimball, D.C. and Helm, W.T. (1971) A method of estimating fish stomach capacity. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 100, 572-5.Google Scholar
  20. Liebherr, J. and Polhemus, D.A. (1997) Comparisons to the century before: The legacy of the R.C.L. Perkins and Fauna Hawaiiensisas the basis for a long-term ecological monitoring program. Pac. Sci. 51, 490-504.Google Scholar
  21. Maciolek, J.A. (1984) Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. In Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes(W.R. Courtenay, Jr. and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. eds), pp. 131-61. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  22. MacCrimmon, H.R. (1971) World distribution of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 28, 663-704.Google Scholar
  23. Mathsoft, Inc. (1999) S-Plus 2000. Seattle, WA. Software.Google Scholar
  24. McClay, W. (2000) Rotenone use in North America (1988-1997). Fisheries 25, 15-21.Google Scholar
  25. Merritt, R.W. and Cummins, K.W. (1996) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Third Edition, 862 pp. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque Iowa.Google Scholar
  26. Needham, P.R. and Welsh, J.P. (1953) Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneriRichardson) in the Hawaiian islands. J. Wildl. Manage. 17, 233-55.Google Scholar
  27. Needham, P.R. and Usinger, R.L. (1962) The introduction of mayflies into Hawaii. In Job Completion Report, Investigations Projects, Proj. No. F-4-R-10. 10 pp + appendices. Hawaii Division of Fish and Game, Bureau of Fisheries, Honolulu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  28. Nishida, G.M. (1997) Hawaiian terrestrial arthropod checklist, 3rd Edition. 263 pp. Hawaii Biological Survey. Bishop Mus. Tech. Rep.12. (Searchable database on the web at Scholar
  29. Polhemus, D.A. (1995) A survey of the aquatic insect faunas of selected Hawaiian streams. Report for the Commission on Water Resource Management, Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawaii. Department of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum. Hawaii Biological Survey Contribution No. 1995-008.Google Scholar
  30. Polhemus, D.A. and Asquith, A. (1996) Hawaiian damselflies: a field identification guide. 122 pp. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  31. Ramsey, F.L. and Schafer,D.W. (1997) The Statistical Sleuth. 742 pp. Duxbury Press, Belmont, CA.Google Scholar
  32. Samways, M.J. (1995) Conservation of the threatened, endemic dragonflies of South Africa. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Conservation of Dragonflies and their Habitats(P.S. Corbet, S.W. Dunkle and H. Ubukata eds), pp. 8-15. 70 pp. Japanese Society for Preservation of Birds, Kushiro.Google Scholar
  33. Samways, M.J. (1996) Workability of the new ‘IUCN Categories of Threat’ with Odonata in South Africa. Odonatologica 25, 347-54.Google Scholar
  34. Samways, M.J. (1999) Diversity and conservation status of South African dragonflies (Odonata). Odonatologica 28, 13-62.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, G.C. (2000) Rediscovery of the introduced mayfly Caenis nigropunctata(Klapalek, 1904) (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae) in Waimanalo Stream, O'ahu. Bishop Mus. Occas. Pap. 64, 30-1.Google Scholar
  36. Townsend, C.R. and Crowl, T.A. (1991) Fragmented population structure in a native New Zealand fish: an effect of introduced brown trout? Oikos 61, 347-54.Google Scholar
  37. Tilzey, R.D.J. (1977) Key factors in the establishment and success of trout in Australia. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Australia 10, 97-105.Google Scholar
  38. Usinger, R.L. (1972) Robert Lee Usinger: autobiography of an entomologist. 330 pp. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  39. Way, C.M. and Burky, A.J. (1991) A preliminary survey of macroinvertebrates and a preliminary assessment of the diet of the endemic Hawaiian goby ('o'opu alamo'o), Lentipes concolor(Gill). In New directions in research, management, and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the 1990 Symposium on Freshwater Stream Biology and Management, State of Hawaii, pp. 158-64. Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hawaii Biological SurveyBishop MuseumHonolulu
  2. 2.Department of Systematic BiologySmithsonian InstitutionWashington, D.C

Personalised recommendations