International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 29–50 | Cite as

Reconciliation in Captive Chimpanzees: A Reevaluation with Controlled Methods

  • Signe Preuschoft
  • Xin Wang
  • Filippo Aureli
  • Frans B. M. de Waal
Article

Abstract

Affiliative postconflict reunions—reconciliations—of former opponents were first demonstrated in the chimpanzees at the Arnhem Zoo. Since then methods have been considerably refined, and reconciliation has been demonstrated in a large number of primates and also some gregarious nonprimates. This study, conducted with a different captive group, is the first to use the revised methodology with chimpanzees. We analyzed a total of 297 agonistic conflicts with the PC–MC method: we observed focal individuals for 15 min after a conflict and during matched control observations the next day. The mean conciliatory tendency of the 16 chimpanzees was 41%, with a range in different age-sex classes of 58% (among adult females) to 19% (among adult vs. immature males). After conflicts, former opponents were selectively attracted to one another. Preferential contact with previous opponents persisted when activity level during matched controls was controlled for statistically. Opponents that were frequent grooming partners reconciled more frequently, but the frequency of agonistic support had no such effect. Our findings thus confirm the existence of reconciliation in chimpanzees, which show one of the highest conciliatory tendencies among primate species.

reconciliation Pan troglodytes apes friendship support 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abegg, C., Thierry, B., and Kaumanns, W. (1996). Reconciliation in three groups of lion-tailed macaques. Int. J. Primatol. 17: 803–816.Google Scholar
  2. Aureli, F. (1992). Post-conflict behavior among wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 329–337.Google Scholar
  3. Aureli, F., Das, M., and Veenema, H. C. (1997). Differential kinship effect on reconciliation in three species of macaques (Macaca fascicularis, M. fuscata and M. sylvanus). J. Comp. Psychol. 111: 91–99.Google Scholar
  4. Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (1998). Peacemaking in primates. In Greenberg, G., and Haraway, M. M. (eds.), Comparative Psychology, Garland, New York, pp. 720–724.Google Scholar
  5. Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (2000). Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  6. Aureli, F., and van Schaik, C. P. (1991a). Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): I. The social events. Ethology 89: 89–100.Google Scholar
  7. Aureli, F., and van Schaik, C. P. (1991b). Post-conflict behavior in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): II. Coping with the uncertainty. Ethology 89: 101–114.Google Scholar
  8. Aureli, F., van Schaik, C. P., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1989). Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Am. J. Primatol. 19: 39–51.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, K. C., and Smuts, B. B. (1996). Social relationships of female chimpanzees: Diversity between captive groups. In Wrangham, R. W., McGrew, W. C., de Waal, F. B. M., and Heltne, P. G. (eds.), Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 227–242.Google Scholar
  10. Bernstein, I. S., and Ehardt, C. L. (1985). Age-sex differences in the expression of agonistic behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) groups. J. Comp. Psychol. 99: 115–132.Google Scholar
  11. Blurton Jones, N. G., and Trollope, J. (1968). Social behaviour of stumptailed macaques in captivity. Primates 9: 365–394.Google Scholar
  12. Boesch, C., and Achermann-Boesch, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Taï Forest, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Cords, M. (1992). Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaques. Anim. Behav. 44: 57–63.Google Scholar
  14. Cords, M. (1993). On operationally defining reconciliation. Am. J. Primatol. 29: 255–269.Google Scholar
  15. Cords, M. (1997). Friendship, alliances, reciprocity and repair. In Whiten, A., and Byrne, R.W. (eds.), Machiavellian Intelligence II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 24–49.Google Scholar
  16. Cords, M., and Aureli, F. (1993). Patterns of reconciliation among juvenile long-tailed Macaques. In M. E. Pereira, and Fairbanks, L. A. (eds.), Juvenile Primates, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 271–284.Google Scholar
  17. Cords, M., and Aureli, F. (2000). Reconciliation and relationship qualities. In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 177–198.Google Scholar
  18. Cords, M., and Thurnheer, S. (1993). Reconciling with valuable partners by long-tailed Macaques. Ethology 93: 315–325.Google Scholar
  19. de Waal, F. B. M. (1984). Sex differences in the formation of coalitions among chimpanzees. Ethol. Sociobiol. 5: 239–255.Google Scholar
  20. de Waal, F. B. M. (1986). The integration of dominance and social bonding in primates. Q. Rev. Biol. 61: 459–479.Google Scholar
  21. de Waal, F. B. M. (1987). Tension regulation and nonreproductive functions of sex in captive bonobos (Pan pansicus). Nat. Geo. Res. 3: 318–335.Google Scholar
  22. de Waal, F. B. M. (1989). Food sharing and reciprocal obligations among chimpanzees. J. Hum. Evol. 18: 433–459.Google Scholar
  23. de Waal, F. B. M. (1992). Appeasement, celebration, and foodsharing in the two Pan species. In Nishida, T., McGrew, W. C., Marler, P., Pickford, M., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Human Origins, Vol. 1, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 37–50.Google Scholar
  24. de Waal, F. B. M. (1993). Reconciliation among primates: A review of empirical evidence and unresolved issues. In Mason, W. A., and Mendoza, S. P. (eds.), Primate Social Conflict, State University of New York Press, Albany, pp. 111–143.Google Scholar
  25. de Waal, F. B. M. (1997a). The chimpanzee's service economy: Food for grooming. Evol. Hum. Behav. 18: 375–386.Google Scholar
  26. de Waal, F.B.M.(1997b). Bonobo-theForgotten Ape, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  27. de Waal, F. B. M., and Aureli, F. (1996). Consolation, reconciliation, and a possible cognitive difference between macaques and chimpanzees. In Russon, A. E., Bard, K. A., and Parker, S. T. (eds.), Reaching into Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 80–110.Google Scholar
  28. de Waal, F. B. M., and Luttrell, L. M. (1988). Mechanisms of social reciprocity in three primate species: Symmetrical relationship characteristics or cognition? Ethol. Sociobiol. 9, 101–118.Google Scholar
  29. de Waal, F. B. M., and Ren, R. (1988). Comparison of the reconciliation behavior of stumptail and rhesus macaques. Ethology 78: 129–142.Google Scholar
  30. de Waal, F. B. M., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1981). Side-directed communication and agonistic interactions in chimpanzees. Behaviour 77: 164–198.Google Scholar
  31. de Waal, F. B. M., and van Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 5: 55–66.Google Scholar
  32. de Waal, F. B. M., and Yoshihara, D. (1983). Reconciliation and redirected affection in rhesus monkeys. Behaviour 85: 224–241.Google Scholar
  33. Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  34. Griede, T. (1981). Invloed op verzoening bij chimpansees, Unpublished report, University of Utrecht.Google Scholar
  35. Hand, J. L. (1986). Resolution of social conflicts: Dominance, egalitarianism, spheres of dominance and game theory. Q. Rev. Biol. 61: 201–220.Google Scholar
  36. Kappeler, P. M. (1993). Reconciliation and post conflict behaviour in ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, and redfronted lemurs, Eulemur fulvus rufus. Anim. Behav. 45: 901–915.Google Scholar
  37. Kappeler, P. M., and van Schaik, C. P. (1992). Methodological and evolutionary aspects of reconciliation among primates. Ethology 92: 51–69.Google Scholar
  38. Kruuk, H. (1972). The Spotted Hyena, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  39. Kummer, H. (1978). On the value of social relationships to nonhuman primates: A heuristic scheme. Soc. Sci. Inf. 17: 687–705.Google Scholar
  40. Matsumura, S. (1996). Postconflict affiliative contacts between former opponents among wild moor macaques (Macaca maurus). Am. J. Primatol. 38: 211–219.Google Scholar
  41. Moynihan, M. (1998). The Social Regulation of Competition and Aggression in Animals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  42. Petit, O., and Thierry, B. (1994). Reconciliation in a group of black macaques. Dodo Wildl. Preserv. Trusts, 30: 89–95.Google Scholar
  43. Preuschoft, S. (ed.). (1995). ‘Laughter’ and ‘smiling’ in Macaques-an EvolutionaryPerspective, University of Utrecht, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  44. Preuschoft, S., and van Schaik, C. P. (2000). Dominance and communication: Conflict management in various social settings. In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 77–105.Google Scholar
  45. Pusey, A., Williams, J., and Goodall, J. (1997). The influence of dominance rank on reproductive success in female chimpanzees. Science 277: 828–831.Google Scholar
  46. Rasa, O. (1977). The ethology and sociology of the dwarf mongoose (Helogale undulata rufula). Z. Tierpsychol. 43: 337–406.Google Scholar
  47. Schaller, G. B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  48. Schenkel, R. (1967). Submission: Its features and function in the wolf and dog. Am. Zool. 7: 319–329.Google Scholar
  49. Schino, G. (2000). Beyond the Primates: Expanding the reconciliation horizon. In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 225–241.Google Scholar
  50. Seyfarth, R., and Cheney, D. (1984). Grooming, alliances and reciprocal altruism in vervet monkeys. Nature 308: 541–542.Google Scholar
  51. Siegel, S., and Castellan, N. J. (1988). Nonparametric Statistics, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Sterck, E. M., Watts, D., and van Schaik, C. P. (1997). The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41: 291–309.Google Scholar
  53. Thierry, B. (2000). Covariation of conflict management patterns across macaque species. In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F.B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 106–154.Google Scholar
  54. van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1973). A structural analysis of the social behaviour in a semicaptive group of chimpanzees. In Vine, M. C. I. (ed.), Expressive Movement and Nonverbal Communication, Academic Press, London, pp. 75–161.Google Scholar
  55. van Lawick-Goodall, J. (1968). The behavior of free-living chimpanzees at the Gombe Stream Reserve. Anim. Behav. Monogr. 1: 163–311.Google Scholar
  56. van Schaik, C. P. (1989). The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In Standon, V., and Foley, R. (eds.), Comparative Socio-Ecology of Mammals and Humans, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 195–218.Google Scholar
  57. van Schaik, C. P. (1996). Social evolution in primates: The role of ecological factors and male behavior. Proc. Brit. Acad. 88: 9–31.Google Scholar
  58. van Schaik, C. P. (1999). The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in Orangutans. Primates 40: 69–86.Google Scholar
  59. van Schaik, C. P., and Aureli, F. (2000). The natural history of valuable relationshihps in primates. In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 307–333.Google Scholar
  60. Veenema, H., Das, M., and Aureli, F. (1994). Methodological improvements for the study of reconciliation. Behav. Proc. 31: 29–38.Google Scholar
  61. Vehrencamp, S. (1983). Amodel for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim. Behav. 31: 667–682.Google Scholar
  62. Verbeek, P., and de Waal, F. B. M. (1997). Postconflict behavior of captive brown capuchins in the presence and absence of attractive food. Int. J. Primatol. 18: 703–725.Google Scholar
  63. Watts, D. P. (1992). Social relationships of immigrant and resident female mountain gorillas. I. Male-female relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 28(3): 159–183.Google Scholar
  64. Watts, D. P. (1995). Post-conflict social events in wild mountain gorillas (Mammalia, Hominoidea): I. Social interactions between opponents. Ethology 100: 139–157.Google Scholar
  65. Wrangham, R.W. (1999). Evolution of coalitionary killing. Ybk. Phys. Anthrop. 42: 1–30.Google Scholar
  66. Wrangham, R.W. (2000). Why are male chimpanzees more gregarious than mothers? Ascramble competition hypothesis. In Kappeler, P.M. (ed.), Primate Males, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 248–258.Google Scholar
  67. York, A. D., and Rowell, T. E. (1988). Reconciliation following aggression in patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Anim. Behav. 36: 502–509.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Signe Preuschoft
    • 1
  • Xin Wang
    • 1
  • Filippo Aureli
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frans B. M. de Waal
    • 1
  1. 1.Living Links, Yerkes Primate CenterEmory UniversityAtlanta
  2. 2.School of Biological and Earth SciencesJohn Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations