Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 27–46 | Cite as

Learning with Maps and Texts: An Overview

  • Michael P. Verdi
  • Raymond W. Kulhavy


This paper serves as an overview of the research done on learning with geographic maps that are presented in conjunction with a related text. First, the review looks at a model of map and text learning and the factors such as prior knowledge and individual differences that affect the model. Second, the review examines how the location of features on a map has a significant effect on what is learned from the map; namely, that features located on the edge of a map are learned and remembered more often and at higher rates than those features located in the interior of the map. Next, the review looks at several ways maps can be used effectively in classrooms. The order of presentation, situated cognition, and the use of technology to improve map learning in classrooms are all discussed. Finally, the review looks at the future of learning from maps and texts.

maps texts spatial cognition conjoint retention 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael P. Verdi
    • 1
  • Raymond W. Kulhavy
    • 2
  1. 1.California State University San BernardinoSan Bernardino
  2. 2.Arizona State UniversityTempe

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