Solar Physics

, Volume 203, Issue 1, pp 179–191 | Cite as

Reconstruction of Wolf Sunspot Numbers on the Basis of Spectral Characteristics and Estimates of Associated Radio Flux and Solar Wind Parameters for the Last Millennium

  • N.R. Rigozo
  • E. Echer
  • L.E.A. Vieira
  • D.J.R. Nordemann


A reconstruction of sunspot numbers for the last 1000 years was obtained using a sum of sine waves derived from spectral analysis of the time series of sunspot number Rz for the period 1700–1999. The time series was decomposed in frequency levels using the wavelet transform, and an iterative regression model (ARIST) was used to identify the amplitude and phase of the main periodicities. The 1000-year reconstructed sunspot number reproduces well the great maximums and minimums in solar activity, identified in cosmonuclides variation records, and, specifically, the epochs of the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder, and Dalton Minimums as well the Medieval and Modern Maximums. The average sunspot number activity in each anomalous period was used in linear equations to obtain estimates of the solar radio flux F10.7, solar wind velocity, and the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field.


Solar Wind Interplanetary Magnetic Field Sunspot Number Solar Radio Solar Wind Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • N.R. Rigozo
    • 1
  • E. Echer
    • 1
  • L.E.A. Vieira
    • 1
  • D.J.R. Nordemann
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, INPES. J. Campos, S.P.Brazil

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