Advertisement

Plant Ecology

, Volume 156, Issue 2, pp 229–243 | Cite as

Using spectral analysis to confront distributions of individual species with an overall periodic pattern in semi-arid vegetation

  • Pierre Couteron
Article

Abstract

Contrasted and periodic vegetation patterns are observed throughout thesemi-arid tropics. The relation between individual species and the‘overall’ pattern has been investigated from a study site in NorthWest Burkina Faso (West Africa), which displayed periodic woody patterns withvarying levels of contrast and isotropy. The woody vegetation was described fromtwo field plots (320 by 320 ), within which woodyindividuals were either mapped or counted (in quadrats of 10 by10 ). A banded pattern of high intensity (tiger bush on hardsandstone, plot PTG) was compared with a less precise pattern on more favourableedaphic conditions (plot PSP). The periodic nature of the vegetation under studywas directly addressed by interpreting spatial auto- and cross-covariancefunctions through spectra of spatial frequencies (spectral analysis). Theoverall pattern of vegetation was analysed from digitised aerial photographs,while distributions of individual species were characterised from field data. Inboth plots, the densest species (Combretum micranthum G.Don), though only dominant in PTG, had a spatial distribution that closelymatched the overall pattern. Pterocarpus lucens Lepr wasco-dominant in both plots although fairly independent on the periodic pattern.Several species displayed a positive link with the periodic pattern that wasquite loose in PSP and tighter in PTG. This tighter link was concomitant withlower densities for most species. Indeed, only C.micranthum clearly benefited from the high intensity pattern with adensity seven times higher in PTG than in PSP. Consequently, species richnessand diversity were lower in PTG. A single species proved hence of overwhelmingimportance in accounting for the periodic pattern and its persistence throughtime. Spatial distributions of other species pointed rather towardsindividualistic responses to the opportunity/constraint provided by theperiodic pattern in presence of different levels of edaphic and climatic stress.

Community structure Spatial patterns Spectral analysis Tiger bush West Africa Woody vegetation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartlett M.S. 1964. The spectral analysis of two-dimensional point processes. Biometrika 51: 299–311.Google Scholar
  2. Boudet G. 1972. Désertification de l'Afrique tropicale sèche. 12: 505–524 Adansonia, série. 2.Google Scholar
  3. Couteron P. 1998. Relations spatiales entre individus et structure d'ensemble dans des peuplements ligneux soudano-sahéliens au nord-ouest du Burkina Faso. Université de Toulouse, France, Doctoral Thesis.Google Scholar
  4. Couteron P. and Kokou K. 1997. Woody vegetation spatial patterns in a semi-arid savanna of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Plant Ecology 132: 211–227.Google Scholar
  5. Couteron P., Deshayes M. and Roches C. 2001. A flexible approach for woody cover assessment from Spot HRV XS data in semiarid West Africa. Application in northern Burkina Faso. International Journal of Remote Sensing 22: 1029–1051.Google Scholar
  6. Couteron P., Mahamane A., Ouedraogo P. and Seghieri J. 2000. Differences between thickets of banded vegetation in two sites of West Africa. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 321–328.Google Scholar
  7. Dale M.R.T. 1999. Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  8. Diggle P.J. 1983. Statistical Analysis of Spatial Point Patterns. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  9. Dunkerley D.L. 1997. Banded vegetation development under uniform rainfall from a simple cellular automaton model. Plant Ecology 129: 103–111.Google Scholar
  10. Gleason H.A. 1939. The individualistic concept of the plant association. American Midland Naturalist 21: 92–110.Google Scholar
  11. Greig-Smith P. 1979. Pattern in vegetation. Journal of Ecology 67: 755–779.Google Scholar
  12. Hiernaux P. and Gérard B. 1999. The influence of vegetation pattern on the productivity, diversity and stability of vegetation: The case of 'brousse tigrée' in the Sahel. Acta Œcologica 20: 147–158.Google Scholar
  13. Hill M.O. 1973. The intensity of spatial pattern in plant communities. Journal of Ecology 61: 225–235.Google Scholar
  14. Hutchinson J. and Dalziel J.M. 1973. Flora of Tropical West Africa. Crown Agents, London.Google Scholar
  15. Kadmon R. and Harari-Kremer R. 1999. Studying long-term vegetation dynamics using digital processing of historical aerial photographs. Remote Sensing of the Environment 68: 164–176.Google Scholar
  16. Kenkel N.C. 1988. Spectral analysis of hummock-hollow pattern in a weakly minerotrophic mire. Vegetatio 78: 42–52.Google Scholar
  17. Kumaresan R. 1993. Spectral analysis. In: Mitra S.K. and Kaiser J.F. (eds), Handbook for Digital Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, New-York, pp. 1143–1169.Google Scholar
  18. Lawesson J.E. 1990. Sahelian woody vegetation in Sénégal. Vegetatio 86: 161–174.Google Scholar
  19. Lefever R. and Lejeune O. 1997. On the origin of tiger bush. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 59: 263–294.Google Scholar
  20. Legendre P. 1993. Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm? Ecology 74: pp 1659–1673.Google Scholar
  21. Lejeune O. and Tlidi M. 1999. A model for the explanation of vegetation stripes (tiger bush). Journal of Vegetation Science 10: 201–208.Google Scholar
  22. Lejeune O., Couteron P. and Lefever R. 1999. Short range co-operativity competing with long range inhibition explains vegetation patterns. Acta Œcologica 20: 171–183.Google Scholar
  23. Ludwig J.A. and Tongway D.J. 1995. Spatial organisation of landscapes and its function in semi-arid woodlands, Australia. Landscape Ecology 10: 51–63.Google Scholar
  24. MacFadyen W.A. 1950. Vegetation patterns in the semi-desert plains of British Somaliland. Geographical Journal 116: 199–210.Google Scholar
  25. Manly B.F.J. 1994. Multivariate statistical methods, a primer. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  26. Mirkin B. 1994. Which plant communities do exist? Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 283–284.Google Scholar
  27. Mugglestone M. 1993. Investigating multispecies patterns in the Lansing woods data using spectral analysis. In: Rennolls K. (ed.), Stochastic Spatial Models in Forestry. The University of Greenwich, London, pp. 81–98.Google Scholar
  28. Mugglestone M.A. and Renshaw E. 1996a. A practical guide to the spectral analysis of spatial point processes. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 21: 43–65.Google Scholar
  29. Mugglestone M. and Renshaw E. 1996b. The exploratory analysis of bivariate spatial point patterns using cross-spectra. Environmetrics 7: 361–377.Google Scholar
  30. Newberry D. Mc C., Renshaw E. and Brünig E.F. 1986. Spatial pattern of trees in kerangas forest, Sarawak. Vegetatio 65: 77–89.Google Scholar
  31. Palmer M.W. and White P.S. 1994. On the existence of ecological communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 279–282.Google Scholar
  32. Peltier R., Mahamane L.E. and Montagne P. 1994. EsAménagement villageois des brousses tachetées au Niger. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 242: 5–24.Google Scholar
  33. Priestley M.B. 1981. Multivariate Series, Prediction and Control. Spectral Analysis and Time Series, Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  34. Renshaw E. and Ford E.D. 1984. The description of spatial pattern using two-dimensional spectral analysis. Vegetatio 56: 75–85.Google Scholar
  35. Ripley B.D. 1977. Modelling spatial patterns. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 39: 172–212.Google Scholar
  36. Ripley B.D. 1978. Spectral analysis and the analysis of pattern in plant communities. Journal of Ecology 66: 965–981.Google Scholar
  37. Ripley B.D. 1981. Spatial Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, New-York.Google Scholar
  38. Seghieri J., Floret C. and Pontanier R. 1994. Development of an herbaceous cover in a Sudano-Sahelian savanna in North Cameroon in relation to available soil water. Vegetatio 114: 175–184.Google Scholar
  39. Seghieri J. and Galle S. 1999. Run-on contribution to a Sahelian two-phase mosaic system: Soil water regime and vegetation life cycles. Acta Œcologica 20: 209–217.Google Scholar
  40. Serpantié G., Tezenas du Montcel L. and Valentin C. 1992. La dynamique des états de surface d'un territoire agropastoral soudano-sahélien. Conséquences et propositions. In: Le Floc'h E., Grouzis M., Cornet A. and Bille J.C. (eds), L'aridité, une contrainte au développement. ORSTOM, Paris, pp. 420–447.Google Scholar
  41. Smith T. and Huston M. 1989. A theory of the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant communities. Vegetatio 83: 49–69.Google Scholar
  42. Tilman D. 1982. Resource competition and community structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New-Jersey.Google Scholar
  43. Ver Hoef J.M. and Glenn-Lewin D.C. 1989. Multiscale ordination: a method for detecting pattern at several scales. Vegetatio 82: 59–67.Google Scholar
  44. Vetaas O.R. 1992. Micro-site effects of trees and shrubs in dry savannas. Journal of Vegetation Science 3: 337–344.Google Scholar
  45. Watt A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35: 1–22.Google Scholar
  46. White F. 1983. The vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the UNESCO/AEFTAT/UNSO vegetation map.UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO, Paris.Google Scholar
  47. White L.P. 1970. Brousse tigrée patterns in southern Niger. Journal of Ecology 58: 549–553.Google Scholar
  48. White L.P. 1971. Vegetation stripes on sheet wash surfaces. Journal of Ecology 59: 615–622.Google Scholar
  49. Wilson J.B. 1991. Does vegetation science exist? Journal of Vegetation Science 2: 289–290.Google Scholar
  50. Wilson J.B. 1994. Who makes the assembly rules? Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 275–278.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Couteron
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural des Eaux et des ForêtsMontpellier cédex 01France

Personalised recommendations