Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 379–384 | Cite as

Mulberry Leaf Metabolism under High Temperature Stress

  • K.V. Chaitanya
  • D. Sundar
  • A. Ramachandra Reddy


Effects of high temperature on the activity of photosynthetic enzymes and leaf proteins were studied in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. BC2-59). A series of experiments were conducted at regular intervals (120, 240 and 360 min) to characterize changes in activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 (PS 2) activity, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (Car), starch, sucrose (Suc), amino acid, free proline, protein and nucleic acid contents in leaves under high temperature (40 °C) treatments. High temperature markedly reduced the activities of RuBPC and SPS in leaf extracts. Chl content and PS 2 activity in isolated chloroplasts were also affected by high temperature, particularly over 360 min treatment. Increased leaf temperature affected sugar metabolism through reductions in leaf starch content and sucrose-starch balance. While total soluble protein content decreased under heat, total amino acid content increased. Proline accumulation (1.5-fold) was noticed in high temperature-stressed leaves. A reduction in the contents of foliar nitrogen and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) was also noticed. SDS-PAGE protein profile showed few additional proteins (68 and 85 kDa) in mulberry plants under heat stress compared to control plants. Our results clearly suggest that mulberry plants are very sensitive to high temperature with particular reference to the photosynthetic carbon metabolism.

chlorophyll Morus alba nucleic acids photosynthesis photosystem 2 proteins RuBP carboxylase sucrose phosphate synthase 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnon, D.I.: Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenol oxidases in Beta vulgaris.-Plant Physiol. 24: 1–15, 1949.Google Scholar
  2. Barathi, P., Sundar, D., Ramachandra Reddy, A.: Changes in mulberry leaf metabolism in response to water stress.-Biol. Plant. 44: 83–87, 2001.Google Scholar
  3. Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., Teare, I.D.: Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies.-Plant Soil 39: 205–208, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, J.A., Björkman, O: Photosynthetic response and adaptation to temperature in higher plants.-Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31: 491–543, 1980.Google Scholar
  5. Björkman, O., Powells, S.B.: Inhibition of photosynthetic reactions under water stress: interaction with light level.-Planta 161: 490–504, 1984.Google Scholar
  6. Bohnert, H.J., Nelson, D.E., Jensen, R.G.: Adaptations to environmental stresses.-Plant Cell 7: 1099–1111, 1995.Google Scholar
  7. Bradford, M.A.: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principles of protein-dye binding.-Anal. Biochem. 72: 248–254, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Burton, A.J.: The study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of DNA.-Biochem. J. 62: 315–323, 1956.Google Scholar
  9. Chauhan, R.P.S., Singh, M.S., Singh, B.B., Singh, R.K.: Free proline accumulation in plants.-In: Singh, B.B., Mengel, K. (ed.): Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. Pp. 193–208. Panima Publishing Corp., New Delhi 1995.Google Scholar
  10. Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A., Smith, F.: Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances.-Anal. Biochem. 28: 350–356, 1956.Google Scholar
  11. Huber, S.C.: Interspecific variation in activity and regulation of leaf sucrose phosphate synthetase.-Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 102: 443–450, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. Ikan, R.: Natural Products. A Laboratory Guide.-Academic Press, New York 1969.Google Scholar
  13. Labate, C.A., Leegood, R.C.: Limitation of photosynthesis by change in temperature. Factors affecting the response of carbon dioxide assimilation to temperature in barley leaves.-Planta 173: 519–527, 1988.Google Scholar
  14. Laemmli, U.K.: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of the bacteriophage T4.-Nature 227: 680–685, 1970.Google Scholar
  15. Law, R.D., Crafts-Bradner, S.J.: Inhibition and acclimation of photosynthesis to heat stress is closely correlated with activation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.-Plant Physiol. 120: 173–181, 1999.Google Scholar
  16. Leegood, R.C.: Carbon metabolism.-In: Hall, D.O., Scurlock, J.M.O., Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H.R., Leegood, R.C., Long, S.P. (ed.): Photosynthesis and Production in a Changing Environment — a Field and Laboratory Manual. Pp. 247–267. Chapman and Hall, London 1993.Google Scholar
  17. Leegood, R.C., Walker, D.A.: Chloroplasts and protoplasts.-In: Hall, D.O., Scurlock, J.M.O., Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H.R., Leegood, R.C., Long, S.P. (ed.): Photosynthesis and Production in a Changing Environment — a Field and Laboratory Manual. Pp. 268–282. Chapman and Hall, London 1993.Google Scholar
  18. Leonardos, E.D., Tsujita, M.J., Grodzinski, B.: The effect of source or sink temperature on photosynthesis and 14C partitioning in and export from a source leaf of Alstroemeria.-Physiol. Plant. 97: 563–575, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. Liley, R.McC., Fitzgerald, M.P., Rienits, K.G., Walker, D.A.: Criteria of intactness and the photosynthetic activity of spinach chloroplast preparations.-New Phytol. 75: 1–10. 1975.Google Scholar
  20. Lorimer, G.H., Badger, M.R., Andrews, T.J.: D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. Improved methods for activation and assay of catalytic activities.-Anal. Biochem. 78: 66–75, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. Ludlow, M.M., Björkman, O.: Paraheliotropic leaf movement in Siratro as a protective mechanism against drought induced damage to primary photosynthetic reactions: damage by excesssive light and heat.-Planta 161: 505–518, 1984.Google Scholar
  22. Makino, A., Nakano, H., Mae, T.: Effects of growth temperature on the responses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, electron transport components, and sucrose synthesis enzymes to leaf nitrogen in rice, and their relationships to photosynthesis.-Plant Physiol. 105: 1231–1238, 1994.Google Scholar
  23. Maroco, J.P., Edwards, G.E., Ku, M.S.B.: Photosynthetic acclimation of maize to growth under elevated levels of carbon dioxide.-Planta 210: 115–125, 1999.Google Scholar
  24. Moore, S., Stein, W.H.: A modified ninhydrin reagent for the photometric determination of amino acids and related compounds.-J. biol. Chem. 211: 807–912, 1954.Google Scholar
  25. Raghavendra, A.S., Das, V.S.R.: Distribution of C4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis in local monocotyledonous plants and its taxonomic significance.-New Phytol. 76: 301–305, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Ramachandra-Reddy, A., Reddy, K.R., Hodges, H.F.: Mepiquat chloride (P1X)-induced changes in photosynthesis and growth of cotton.-Plant Growth Regul. 20: 179–183, 1996.Google Scholar
  27. Rawal, V.M., Patel, U.S., Rao, G.N., Desai, R.R.: Chemical and biochemical studies on cataracts and human lenses III. Quantitative study of protein, RNA and DNA.-Arogya J. Health Sci. 3: 69–75, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T.: Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual.-Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York 1989.Google Scholar
  29. Schneider, H.J.: Phosphorous compounds in animal tissue. Extraction and estimation of deoxypentose nucleic acids and of pentose nucleic acid.-J. biol. Chem. 161: 293–299, 1945.Google Scholar
  30. Singla, S.L., Pareek, A., Grover, A.: High temperature.-In: Prasad, M.N.V (ed.): Plant Ecophysiology. Pp. 101–126. John Wiley and Sons, New York 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.V. Chaitanya
    • 1
  • D. Sundar
    • 1
  • A. Ramachandra Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life SciencesPondicherry UniversityPondicherry-India

Personalised recommendations