Minimizing the Handoff Latency in Ad-Hoc Networks When Streaming Media to Mobile Devices Abstract
The number of mobile devices connecting to networks independently of a fixed point of attachment is increasing. These wireless networks differ in bandwidth, size and location of the coverage area, access costs and network characteristics. Mobile multimedia devices such as PDA's, palmtops and laptops will also vary greatly in size and processing power. The common denominator however, is that all these devices will require the optimal delivery of networked multimedia data.
One interesting problem is the delay imposed upon mobile receivers when switching between wireless cells. We provide a solution to this in the form of an extension of Mobile IP's hand-off algorithm. Our solution involves the exploitation of mobility prediction to predict a mobile terminal's future location based on its previous history (i.e., the last cell that it has been in) and for the media stream to be already present and cached by next cells base station ready for receiving by the mobile device.
We cater specifically for continuous media applications, which can be especially effected by severe degradation in quality due to movement between cells. We present the results of a series of simulations of the Mobile IP++ protocol, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the ad-hoc protocol when mobile hosts move in predictable patterns between cells.
Ad-Hoc networks media stream Mobile IP++ protocol REFERENCES
D. O. Awduche, A. Ganz, and A. Gaylord, An optimal search strategy for mobile stations in wireless networks, Proceedings of ICUPC'96, Cambridge, MA, Sep. 1996, p. 946–50.
D. O. Awduche and E. Agu, Mobile Extensions to RSVP. Proceedings of ICCCN'97, Las Vegas, NV, Sep. 1997, pp. 132–6.
A. Bakre and B. R. Badrinath, I-TCP: Indirect TCP for Mobile Hosts', 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 1995.
A. Bakre and B. R. Badrinath, Handoff and System Support for Indirect TCP. Second Symposium on Mobile and Location-Indepenent Computing, USENIX, April, 1995.
H. Balakrishnan, V. N. Padmanabhan, S. Seshan, and R. H. Katz, A comparison of Mechanisms for Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Links. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, December 1997.
Hari Balakrishnan, Srinivasan Seshan, and Randy Katz, “Improving Reliable Transport and Handoff performance in Cellular Wireless Networks, ACM Mobile Computing and Networking Conference Mobicom '95, pp. 36–41, 1995.
Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu, and Jorjeta Jetcheva, A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'98), October 25, 1998.
A. Campbell, G. Coulson, and F. Gracia, Integrated Quality Of Service For Multimedia Communications,
Proc. IEEE INFOCOMM' 93
, pp. 732–39, Mar. 1993.
S. Choi and K. G. Shin, Predictive and Adaptive Bandwidth Reservation for Hand-Offs in QoS-Sensitive Cellular Networks.
Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM'98
, Vancouver, BC, Oct. 1998, pp. 155–66.
S. Corson, S. Papademetriou, P. Papadopoulos, V. Park, and A. Qayyum, An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-imep-spec-01.txt, August 7, 1998.
Rohit Dube, Cynthia Rais, Kuang-Yh Wang, and Satish Tripathi,
Signal Stability base Adaptive Routing (SSA) for Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks
, IEEE Personal Communications, February, 1997.
Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson, Random Early Detection gateways for Congestion Avoidance, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 1 No. 4, pp. 397–413, August 1993.
M. Gerla, G. Pei, S.-J. Lee, and C.-C. Chiang, On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) for Ad Hoc Networks, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-odmrp-00.txt, November 1998.
Routing Information Procotol
, RFC 1058, June 1988.
P. Jacquet, P. Muhlethaler, and A. Qayyum,
Optimized Link State Routing Protocol
, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 18, 1998.
M. Jiang, J. Li, and Y. C. Tay,
Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional Specification
, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manetcbrp-spec-00.txt, August, 1998.
B. Liang and Z. J. Haas, Predictive Distance-Based Mobility Management for PCS Networks,
, New York City, NY, March 21–25, 1999.
S. A. Maffeis, Flexible System Design to Support Object-Groups and Object-Oriented Distributed Programming, In Proceedings of the ECOOP'93 Workshop on Object-Based Distributed Programming, 1994.
S. McCanne and V. Jacobson, “vic: A Flexible Framework for Packet Video,” Proceedings of ACM Multimedia '95, November 1995.
V. Park and S. Corson, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1 Functional Specification, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 7, 1998.
G. Parr and K. Curran, Optimal Multimedia Transport On The Internet, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol. 21, pp. 149–161, 1998.
G. Parr and K. Curran, Dynamic Multimedia Protocol Stacks, Software Concepts and Tools, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 79–86, 1998.
G. Parr and K. Curran, Reliable Remote Isochronous Applications Over The Internet, Presented at IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, San Diego-CA, October 11-14, 1998.
G. Parr and K. Curran, Multiple Multicast Groups For Multimedia On The Internet, Information & Software Technology, Vol. 41, pp. 91–99, 1999.
G. Parr and K. A. Curran, Paradigm Shift In The Distribution Of Multimedia, Communications Of The ACM, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 103–109, June 2000.
Charles E. Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat,
Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers
, Proceedings of the SIGCOMM'94 Conference on Communications, Architectures, Protocols and Applications, pp. 234–244, August, 1994.
Charles Perkins and Elizabeth Royer, Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manetaodv-02.txt, November 20, 1998. Work in progress.
S. Seshan, H. Balakrishnan, and R. H. Katz, Handoffs in Cellular Wireless Networks: The Daedalus Implementation and Experience, Technical Report, University of California, Berkeley, 1995.
M. Stemm and R. H. Katz, Vertical Handoffs in Wireless Overlay Networks. ACM Mobile Networking and Applications (MONET), Special Issue on “Mobile Networking in the Internet,” Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 319–334, January 1999.
W. R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1, Addison-Wesley, New York, NY, Jan. 1994.
A. G. Valko, Cellular IP-A New Approach to Internet Host Mobility, ACM Computer Communication Review, January 1999.
B. Zenel and D. Duchamp, Intelligent Communication Filtering for Limited Bandwidth Environment, The 5th Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, 1995.
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001