Behavior Genetics

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 243–273

Genes, Evolution, and Personality

  • Thomas J. BouchardJr.
  • John C. Loehlin
Article

Abstract

There is abundant evidence, some of it reviewed in this paper, that personality traits are substantially influenced by the genes. Much remains to be understood about how and why this is the case. We argue that placing the behavior genetics of personality in the context of epidemiology, evolutionary psychology, and neighboring psychological domains such as interests and attitudes should help lead to new insights. We suggest that important methodological advances, such as measuring traits from multiple viewpoints, using large samples, and analyzing data by modern multivariate techniques, have already led to major changes in our view of such perennial puzzles as the role of “unshared environment” in personality. In the long run, but not yet, approaches via molecular genetics and brain physiology may also make decisive contributions to understanding the heritability of personality traits. We conclude that the behavior genetics of personality is alive and flourishing but that there remains ample scope for new growth and that much social science research is seriously compromised if it does not incorporate genetic variation in its explanatory models.

Personality heritability evolutionary psychology twins 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. J., and Sanford, R. N. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality, Harper, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Ahern, F. M., Johnson, R. C., Wilson, J. R., McClearn, G. E., and Vandenberg, S. G. (1982). Family resemblances in personality. Behav. Genet. 12: 261–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allman, J. M. (2000). Evolving Brains, Scientific American Library, New York (distributed by W. H. Freeman).Google Scholar
  4. Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A Psychological Interpretation, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Altemeyer, B. (1988). Enemies of Freedom, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  6. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Barrick, M. R., and Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychol. 44: 1–26.Google Scholar
  8. Baunack, E., Falk, E. B., and Gärtner, K. (1984). Monozygotic vs. dizygotic twin behavior in artificial mouse twins. Genetics 106: 463–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beer, J. M., and Horn, J. M. (2000). The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts. J. Personal. 68: 789–819.Google Scholar
  10. Benjamin, J., Osher, Y., Kolter, M., Gritsenko, I., Nemanov, I., Belmaker, R. H., and Ebstein, R. P. (2000). Association between tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) traits and three functional polymorphisms: Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin transporter promotor region (5-HTTLPR) and catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT). Mol. Psychiatry 5: 96–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergeman, C. S., Plomin, R., McClearn, G. E., Pedersen, N. L., and Friberg, L. T. (1988). Genotype-environment interaction in personality development: Identical twins reared apart. Psychol. Aging 13: 399–406.Google Scholar
  12. Betsworth, D. G., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Cooper, C. R., Grotevant, H. D., Hansen, J. C., Scarr, S., and Weinberg, R. A. (1994). Genetic and environmental influences on vocational interests assessed using adoptive and biological families and twins reared apart and together. J. Vocat. Behav. 44: 263–278.Google Scholar
  13. Blangero, J., Williams, J. T., and Almasy, L. (2000). Quantitative trait locus mapping using human pedigrees. Hum. Biol. 72: 35–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Block, J. (1995). A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychol. Bull. 117: 187–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Block, J. (2001). Mellennial Contrarianism: The Five-Factor approach to personality description 5 years later. J. Res. Personal. 35: 98–107.Google Scholar
  16. Bock, G. R., and Cardew, G. (eds.) (1997). Characterizing Human Psychological Adaptations, Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  17. Boomsma, D. I., Geus, E. J. C., Van Baal, G. C. M., and Koopmans, J. R. (1999). A religious upbringing reduces the influence of genetic factors on disinhibition: Evidence for interaction between genotype and environment on personality. Twin Res. 2: 115–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1993). Genetic and environmental influences on adult personality: Evaluating the evidence. In Deary, I., and Hettema, J. (eds.), Basic Issues in Personality, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  19. Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1997a). Experience producing drive theory: How genes drive experience and shape personality. Acta Paediatr. 422: 60–64.Google Scholar
  20. Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1997b). The genetics of personality. In Blum, K., and Noble, E. P. (eds.), Handbook of Psychiatric Genetics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 273–296.Google Scholar
  21. Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1998). Genetic and environmental influences on adult intelligence and special mental abilities. Hum. Biol. 70: 257–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., and McGue, M. (1981). Familial studies of intelligence: A review. Science 212: 1055–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken, D. T., Tellegen, A. T., and McGue, M. (1996). Genes, drives, environment and experience: EPD theory-Revised. In Benbow, C. P., and Lubinski, D. (eds.), Intellectual Talent: Psychometrics and Social Issues, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 5–43.Google Scholar
  24. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., McGue, M., Hur, Y.-M., and Horn, J. M. (1998). A genetic and environmental analysis of the California Psychological Inventory using adult twins reared apart and together. Eur. J. Personal. 12: 307–320.Google Scholar
  25. Bouchard, T. J., Jr., McGue, M., Lykken, D. T., and Tellegen, A. (1999). Intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness: Genetic and environmental influences and personality correlates. Twin Res. 2: 88–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brand, C. R. (1994). Open to experience-Closed to intelligence: Why the “Big Five” are really the “comprehensive six.” Eur. J. Personal. 8: 299–310.Google Scholar
  27. Buss, D. M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Buss, D. M. (1995a). Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science. Psychol. Inquiry 6: 1–30.Google Scholar
  29. Buss, D. M. (1995b). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. Am. Psychol. 50: 164–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buss, D. M. (1999). Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind, Allyn Bacon, Boston.Google Scholar
  31. Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., and Wakefield, J. C. (1998). Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels. Am. Psychol. 53: 533–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., and Wakefiled, J. C. (1999). Interactionism, flexibility, and inferences about the past. Am. Psychol. 54: 443–445.Google Scholar
  33. Butcher, J. N., and Rouse, S. V. (1996). Personality: Individual differences and clinical assessment Annu. Rev. Psychol. 47: 87–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cadoret, R. J., Yates, W. R., Troughton, E., Woodworth, G., and Stewart, M. A. (1995). Genetic-environment interaction in the genesis of aggressivity and conduct disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 52: 916–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Canli, T., Zhao, Z., Kang, E., and Gross, J. (2001). An fMRI study of personality influence on brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. Behav. Neurosci. 115: 33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cardno, A. G., Marshall, E. J., Coid, B., Macdonald, A. M., Ribshester, T. R., Davies, N. J., Venturi, P., Jones, L. A., Lewis, S. W., Sham, P. C., Gottesman, I. I., Farmer, A. E., McGuffin, P., Reveley, A. M., and Murray, R. M. (1999). Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56: 162–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Carey, G., and DiLalla, D. L. (1994). Personality and psychopathology: Genetic perspectives. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 103: 32–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Carroll, J. B. (2001). The five-factor personality model: How complete and satisfactory is it? In Braun, H., Jackson, D. and Wiley, D., (eds.), The Role of Constructs in Psychological and Educational Measurement, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  39. Cartwright, J. (2000). Evolution and Human Behavior: Darwinian Perspectives on Human Nature, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  40. Caspi, A., and Herbener, E. S. (1993). Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: Longitudinal evidence. Soc. Biol. 40: 48–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cattell, R. B. (1943). The description of personality: Basic traits resolved into clusters. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 38: 476–506.Google Scholar
  42. Cattell, R. B. (1960). The multiple abstract variance analysis equations and solutions: For nature-nurture research on continuous variables. Psychol. Rev. 67: 353–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cattell, R. B., Blewett, D. B., and Beloff, J. R. (1955). The inheritance of personality. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 7: 122–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Charlesworth, W. R. (1992). Darwin and developmental psychology: Past and present. Dev. Psychol. 28: 5–16.Google Scholar
  45. Christensen, K., Vaupel, J. W., Holm, N. V., and Yashin, A. I. (1995). Mortality among twins after age 6: Fetal-origins hypothesis versus twin method. Br. Med. J. 310: 432–436.Google Scholar
  46. Church, A. T. (1994). Relating the Tellegen and Five-Factor models of personality structure. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 67:898–909.Google Scholar
  47. Claridge, G., and Birchall, P. (1978). Bishop, Eysenck, Block, and Psychoticism. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 87: 664–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cloninger, C. R., Adolfsson, R., and Svrakic, N. M. (1996). Mapping genes for human personality. Nature Genet. 12: 3–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Cloninger, C. R., Van Eerdewegh, P., Goate, A., Edemberg, H. J., Blangero, J., Hesselbrock, V., Reich, T., Nurnberger, J., Schuckit, M., Porjesz, B., Crowe, R., Rice, J. P., Foroud, T., Przybeck, T. R., Almasy, L., Bucholz, K., Wu, W., Shears, S., Carr, K., Crose, C., Willig, C., Zhao, J., Tischfield, J. A., Li, T.-K., Conneally, P. M., and Begleiter, H. (1998). Anxiety proness linked to epistatic loci in genome scan of human personality traits. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 81: 313–317.Google Scholar
  50. Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., and Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. Am. Psychol. 55: 218–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Costa, P. T., Jr., and McCrae, R. R. (1995). Domains and facets: Hierarchical personality assessment using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. J. Personal. Assess. 64: 21–50.Google Scholar
  53. Costa, P. T., Jr., and Widiger, T. A. (eds.) (1994). Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model of Personality, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  54. Costa, P. T., Jr., McCrae, R. R., Zonderman, A. B., Barbano, H. E., Lebowitz, B., and Larson, D. M. (1986). Cross-sectional studies of personality in a national sample: 2. Stability in Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness. Psychol. Aging 1: 144–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Crabbe, J. C., Wahlsten, E., and Dudek, B. C. (1999). Genetics of mouse behavior: Interactions with laboratory environment. Science 284: 1670–1672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Crelia, R. A., and Tesser, A. (1996). Attitude heritability and attitude reinforcement: A replication. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 21: 803–808.Google Scholar
  57. D'Onofrio, B. M., Eaves, L. J., Murrelle, L., Maes, H. H., and Spilka, B. (1999). Understanding biological and social influences on religious attitudes and behaviors: A behavior genetic perspective. J. Personal. 67: 953–984.Google Scholar
  58. Darwin, C. (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  59. Dawis, R. V. (1992). The individual differences tradition in counseling psychology. J. Counsel. Psychol. 39: 7–19.Google Scholar
  60. Dawkins, R. (1982). The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  61. Dennett, D. C. (1995). Darwin' Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meaning of Life, Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Derom, C., Thiery, E., Vlietinck, R., Loos, R., and Derom, R. (1996). Handedness in twins according to zygosity and chorion type: A preliminary report. Behav. Genet. 26: 407–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Doebley, J. (2000). A tomato gene weighs in. Science 289: 71–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Duchaine, B., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. (2001). Evolutionary psychology and the brain. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 11: 225–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Eagly, A. H., and Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. Am. Psychol. 54: 408–423.Google Scholar
  66. Eaves, L. J. (1982). The utility of twins. In Anderson, E., Hauser, W. A., Penry, J. K., and Sing, C. F. (eds.), Genetic Basis of the Epilepsies, Raven, New York, pp. 249–276.Google Scholar
  67. Eaves, L. J., Heath, A. C., and Martin, N. G. (1984). A note on the generalized effects of assortative mating. Behav. Genet. 14: 371–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Eaves, L. J., Eysenck, H. J., and Martin, N. G. (1989). Genes, Culture and Personality: An Empirical Approach, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Eaves, L. J., Heath, A., Martin, N., Maes, H., Neale, M., Kendler, K., Kirk, K., and Corey, L. (1999). Comparing the biological and cultural inheritance of personality and social attitudes in the Virginia 30, 000 study of twins and their relatives. Twin Res. 2: 62–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Eaves, L. J., Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Hewitt, J. K., and Martin, N. G. (1998). Sex differences and non-additivity in the effects of genes on personality. Twin Res. 1: 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., Osher, Y., Blaine, D., Bennett, E. R., Nemanov, L., Katz, M., and Belmaker, R. H. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nature Genet. 12: 78–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Eley, T. C. (1997). General genes, a new theme in developmental psychopathology. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 6: 90–95.Google Scholar
  73. Emmons, R. A., and McCullough, M. E. (1999). Special Issue: Religion in the psychology of personality. J. Personal. 67: 873–1218.Google Scholar
  74. Ernst, C., and Angst, J. (1983). Birth Order: Its Influence on Personality, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Eysenck, H. J. (1992). Four ways five factors are not basic. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 13: 667–673.Google Scholar
  76. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and Individual Differences, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Falconer, D. S. (1960). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, Longmans, London.Google Scholar
  78. Feingold, A. (1992). Good-looking people are not what we think. Psychol. Bull. 111(2): 304–341.Google Scholar
  79. Feingold, A. (1995). The additive effects of differences in central tendency and variability are important in comparisons between groups. Am. Psychol. 50: 5–13.Google Scholar
  80. Finch, C. E., and Kirkwood, T. E. L. (2000). Chance, Development and Aging, Oxford, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Finkel, D., and McGue, M. (1997). Sex differences and nonadditivity in heritability of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire scales. J. Personal. Social Psychol. 72: 929–938.Google Scholar
  82. Flint, J., Corey, R., DeFries, J. C., Fulker, D. W., Gray, J. A., Miller, S. and Collins, A. C. (1995) A simple genetic basis for a complex psychological trait in laboratory mice. Science 269: 1432–1435Google Scholar
  83. Floderus-Myrhed, B., Pedersen, N., and Rasmuson, I. (1980). Assessment of heritability for personality, based on a short-form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory: A study of 12,898 twins pairs. Behav. Genet. 10: 153–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Flory, J. D., Manuck, S. B., Ferrell, R. E., Dent, K. M., Peters, D. G., and Muldoon, M. F. (1999). Neuroticism is not associated with the serotonin transponder (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. Mol. Psychiatry 4: 93–96.Google Scholar
  85. Foley, R. (1987). Another Unique Species: Patterns of Human Evolutionary Ecology, Longman, Burnt Mill, Harlow.Google Scholar
  86. Frary, A., Nesbitt, T. C., Frary, A., Grandillo, S., van der Knaap, E., Cong, B., Liu, J., Meller, J., Elber, R., Alpert, K. B., and Tanksley, S. D. (2000). fw2.2: A quantitative trait locus key to the evolution of tomato fruit size. Science 289: 85–88.Google Scholar
  87. Funder, D. C. (1992). Global traits: A neo-Allportian approach to personality. Psychol. Sci. 2: 31–39.Google Scholar
  88. Funder, D. C., and Ozer, D. J. (1997). Pieces of the Personality Puzzle, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  89. Gärtner, K. (1990). A third component causing random variability beside environment and genotype. A reason for the limited success of a 30 year long effort to standardize laboratory animals? Lab. Anim. 24: 71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gati, I. (1991). The structure of vocational interests. Psychol. Bull. 109: 309–324.Google Scholar
  91. Goldberg, L. R. (1971). A historical survey of personality scales and inventories. In McReynolds, P. (ed.), Advances in Psychological Assessment, Vol. 2, Science and Behavior Books, Pal. Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  92. Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. Am. Psychol. 48: 26–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Goodenough, W. H. (1993). Evolution of the human capacity for beliefs. Zygon 28: 5–27.Google Scholar
  94. Gosling, S. D. (2001). From mice to men: What can we learn about personality from animal research? Psychol. Bull. 127: 45–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Gosling, S. D., and John, O. P. (1999). Personality dimensions in nonhuman animals: A cross-species review. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 8: 69–75.Google Scholar
  96. Griffin, D. R. (1992). Animal Minds, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  97. Gutknecht, L., Spitz, E., and Carlier, M. (1999). Long-term effects of placental type on anthropometrical and psychological traits among monozygotic twins: A follow-up study. Twin Res. 2: 212–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hall, C. S., and Lindzey, G. (1970). Theories of Personality, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Harkness, A. R., and Lilienfield, S. O. (1997). Individual differences science for treatment planning: Personality traits. Psychol. Assess. 9: 349–360.Google Scholar
  100. Harris, J. (2000). Context-specific learning, personality and birth order. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 9: 174–177.Google Scholar
  101. Harris, J. R. (1998). The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  102. Harris, J. R. (2000). Socialization, personality development, and the child' environments: Comment on Vandell (2000). Dev. Psychol. 36: 711–723.Google Scholar
  103. Hayes, K. J. (1962). Genes, drives, and intellect. Psychol. Rep. 10: 299–342.Google Scholar
  104. Heath, A. C., and Martin, N. G. (1990). Psychoticism as a dimension of personality: A multivariate genetic test of Eysenck and Eysencks Psychoticism construct. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 58: 111–112.Google Scholar
  105. Heath, A. C., Eaves, L. J., and Martin, N. G. (1989). The genetic structure of personality III. Multivariate genetic item analysis of the EPQ scales. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 10: 877–888.Google Scholar
  106. Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Eaves, L. J., and Kendler, K. S. (1992). Evidence for genetic influences on personality from self-reports and informant ratings. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 63: 85–96.Google Scholar
  107. Heath, A. C., Cloninger, C. R., and Martin, N. G. (1994). Testing a model for the genetic structure of personality: A comparison of the personality systems of Cloninger and Eysenck. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 66: 762–775.Google Scholar
  108. Heath, A. C., Eaves, L. J., and Martin, N. G. (1998). Interaction of marital status and genetic risk for symptoms of depression. Twin Res. 1: 119–122.Google Scholar
  109. Hendrick, S. S., and Hendrick, C. (1986). A theory and method of love. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 50: 392–402.Google Scholar
  110. Holland, J. L. (1997). Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments, Psychological Assessment Resources, Oddesa, FL.Google Scholar
  111. Hough, L. M. (1992). The “Big Five” personality variables-Construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Hum. Perform. 5: 139–155.Google Scholar
  112. Hough, L. M., and Oswald, F. L. (2000). Personnel selection: Looking towards the future-Remembering the past. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 51: 631–664.Google Scholar
  113. Jacob, F. (1977). Evolution and tinkering. Science 196: 1161–1166.Google Scholar
  114. Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., and Vernon, P. A. (1996a). Heritability of the big five personality dimensions and their facets: A twin study. J. Personal. 64: 577–591.Google Scholar
  115. Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., Vernon, P. A., and Jackson, D. N. (1996b). Heritability of personality disorder traits: A twin study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 94: 438–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Jang, K. L., McCrae, R. R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., and Livesley, W. J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 74: 1556–1565.Google Scholar
  117. Jockin, V., McGue, M., and Lykken, D. T. (1996). Personality and divorce: A genetic analysis. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 71: 288–299.Google Scholar
  118. John, O. P., and Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In Pervin, L. A., and John, O. P. (eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2nd ed., Guilford, New York, pp. 102–138.Google Scholar
  119. John, O. P., Angleitner, A., and Ostendorf, F. (1988). The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research. Eur. J. Personal. 2: 171–203.Google Scholar
  120. Kirk, K. M., and Martin, N. G. (1999). Religion, values and health: Unraveling the role of genes and environment. Twin Res. 2: 59–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1999). Toward an evolutionary psychology of religion and personality. J. Personal. 67: 921–952.Google Scholar
  122. Koopmans, J. R. (1997). The Genetics of Health-Related Behaviors: A Study of Adolescent Twins and Their Parents, Unpublished Ph.D., Free University, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  123. Koshland, E. E., Jr. (1984). Individuality in bacteria and its relationship to higher species. In Fox, S. W. (ed.), Individuality and Determinism: Chemical and Biological Bases, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Krueger, R. F. (2000). Phenotypic, genetic, and nonshared environmental parallels in the structure of personality: A view from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 79 (in press).Google Scholar
  125. Krueger, R. F., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Bleske, A. B., and Silva, P. A. (1998). Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications. Behav. Genet. 28: 173–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., and Moffitt, T. E. (2001a). Epidemiological personology: The unifying role of personality in populationbased research on problem behaviors. J. Personal. (in press).Google Scholar
  127. Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., and McGue, M. (2001). Altruism and antisocial behavior: Independent tendencies, unique personality correlates, distinct etiologies. Psychol. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  128. Lake, R. I. E., Eaves, L. J., Maes, H. H. M., Heath, A. C., and Martin, N. G. (2000). Further evidence against the environmental transmission of individual differences in neuroticism from a collaborative study of 45,850 twins and relatives on two continents. Behav. Genet. 30: 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M., and Smott, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A metaanalytic and theoretical review. Psychol. Bull. 126: 390–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lesch, K. P., Bengel, D., Heils, A., et al. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 274: 1527–1531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Li, C. C. (1987). A genetical model for emergenesis. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 41: 517–523.Google Scholar
  132. Livesley, W. J., Jang, K. L., and Vernon, P. A. (1998). Phenotypic and genetic structure of traits deliniating personality disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 55: 941–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Loehlin, J. C. (1987). Heredity, environment, and the structure of the California Psychological Inventory. Multivar. Behav. Res. 22: 137–148.Google Scholar
  134. Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Genes and Environment in Personality Development, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.Google Scholar
  135. Loehlin, J. C. (1998). Latent Variable Models: An Introduction to Factor, Path, and Structural Analysis, 3rd ed., Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.Google Scholar
  136. Loehlin, J. C. (2001). Behavior genetics and parenting theory. Am. Psychol. 56: 169–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Loehlin, J. C., and Horn, J. M. (2000). Stoolmiller on restriction of range in adoption studies: A comment. Behav. Genet. 30: 245–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Loehlin, J. C., and Martin, N. G. (2001). Age changes in personality traits and their heritabilities during the adult years: Evidence from Australian twin registry. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 30: 1147–1160.Google Scholar
  139. Loehlin, J. C., and Nichols, R. C. (1976). Heredity, Environment, and Personality: A Study of 850 Sets of Twins, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  140. Loehlin, J. C., Horn, J. M., and Willerman, L. (1981). Personality resemblance in adoptive families. Behav. Genet. 11: 309–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Loehlin, J. C., Willerman, L., and Horn, J. M. (1985). Personality resemblances in adoptive families when the children are late-adolescent or adult. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 48: 376–392.Google Scholar
  142. Loehlin, J. C., Willerman, L., and Horn, J. M. (1987). Personality resemblance in adoptive families: A 10-year follow-up. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 53: 961–969.Google Scholar
  143. Loehlin, J. C., Spurdle, A., Treloar, S. A., and Martin, N. G. (1999). Number of X-linked androgen receptor gene CAG repeats and femininity in women. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 27: 887–899.Google Scholar
  144. Lubinski, D. (2000). Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: “Sinking shafts at a few critical points.” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 51: 405–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lykken, D. T., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., McGue, M., and Tellegen, A. (1993). Heritability of interests: A twin study. J. Appl. Psychol. 78: 649–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lykken, D. T., and Tellegen, A. (1993). Is human mating adventitous or the result of lawful choice? A twin study of mate selection. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 65: 56–68.Google Scholar
  147. Lynch, M., and Walsh, B. (1998). Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits, Sinaver, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  148. MacDonald, A. M. (1993). Twin studies in medical research. Lancet 341: 1419.Google Scholar
  149. Markon, K. E., Krueger, R. E., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., and Gottesman, I. I. (2001). Normal and abnormal personality traits: Evidence for genetic and environmental relationships in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. J. Personal. (in press).Google Scholar
  150. Martin, N., Boomsma, D., and Machin, G. (1997). A twin-pronged attack on complex traits. Nature Genet. 17: 387–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Martin, N. G., Eaves, L. J., Heath, A. C., Jardine, R., Feingold, L. M., and Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Transmission of social attitudes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 4364–4368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Martin, N. G., Goodwin, G., Fairburn, C., Wilson, R., Allison, D., Cardon, L. R., and Flint, J. (2000). A population-based study of personality in 34,000 sib-pairs. Twin Res. 3: 310–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N., and Boyce, A. J. (eds.) (1988). Human Mating Patterns, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  154. Maser, J. D., and Gallup, G. G., Jr. (1990). Theism as a by product of natural selection. J. Religion 70: 515–532.Google Scholar
  155. Mathews, G., and Deary, I. J. (1998). Personality Traits, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  156. McCartney, K., Harris, M. J., and Bernieri, F. (1990). Growing up and growing apart: A developmental meta-analysis of twin studies. Psychol. Bull. 107: 226–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. McClearn, G. E., Vogler, G. P., and Plomin, R. (1996). Genetics and behavioral medicine. Behav. Med. 22: 93–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. McCourt, K., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken, D. T., Tellegen, A., and Keyes, M. (1999). Authoritarianism revisited: Genetic and environmental influence examined in twins reared apart and together. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 27: 985–1014.Google Scholar
  159. McCrae, R. R., and Costa, P. T. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. Am. Psychol. 52: 509–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McCrae, R. R., Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., Riemann, R., and Angleitner, A. (2001). Sources of structure: Genetic, environmental, and artifactual influences on the covariation of personality traits. J. Personal. 69: 511–535.Google Scholar
  161. McGue, M. (2001). The genetics of personality. In Roman, D. L., Spielberg, S., Connor, M., Pyeritz, R. E., Korf, B. (eds.) Emery and Rimoin' Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics (4th Ed). W.B. Saunders, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  162. McGue, M., and Lykken, D. T. (1992). Genetic influence on risk of divorce. Psychol. Sci. 3: 368–372.Google Scholar
  163. McGue, M., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken, D. T., and Finkel, D. (1991). On genes, environment and experience. Behav. Brain Sci. 14(3): 400–401.Google Scholar
  164. McGue, M., Bacon, S., and Lykken, D. T. (1993). Personality stability and change in early adulthood: A behavior genetic analysis. Dev. Psychol. 29: 96–109.Google Scholar
  165. Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behav. Brain Sci. 18: 523–599.Google Scholar
  166. Mealey, L. R. (2000). Sex Differences: Developmental and Evolutionary Strategies, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  167. Mellersh, C. S., Hitte, C., Richman, M., Vignaux, F., Priat, C., Jouquand, S., Werner, P., Andre, C., DeRose, S., Patterson, D. F., Ostrander, E. A., and Galibert, F. (2000). An integrated linkage-radiation hybrid map of he canine genome. Mammal. Genome 11: 120–130.Google Scholar
  168. Miles, D. R., and Carey, G. (1997). Genetic and environmental architecture of human aggression. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 72: 207–217.Google Scholar
  169. Miller, J. Z., and Rose, R. J. (1982). Familial resemblance in Locus of Control: A twin family study of the internal-external scale. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 42: 535–540.Google Scholar
  170. Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and Assessment, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  171. Mischel, W. (1986). Introduction to Personality, 4th ed., Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  172. Molenaar, P. C. M., Boomsma, D. I., and Dolan, C. V. (1993). A third source of developmental differences. Behav. Genet. 6: 519–524.Google Scholar
  173. Molenaar, P. C. M., Boomsma, D. I., and Dolan, C. V. (1999). The detection of genotype-environment interaction in longitudinal genetic models. In LaBuda, M. C., Grigorenko, E. L. (eds.), On the Way to Individuality: Current Metholodogical Issues in Behavioral Genetics, Nova, Commack, NY, pp. 53–68.Google Scholar
  174. Morey, D. F. (1994). The early evolution of the domestic dog. Am. Sci. 82 (July-Aug.): 336–347.Google Scholar
  175. Mousseau, T. A., and Roff, D. A. (1987). Natural selection and the heritability of fitness components. Heredity 59: 181–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in Personality, Oxford, New York.Google Scholar
  177. Neale, M. C., and Cardon, L. R. (eds.) (1992). Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  178. Nesse, R. N. (2001). Natural selection, mental modules and intelligence. In The Nature of Intelligence, Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  179. Nesse, R. M. (2001). The Smoke Detector Principle: Natural selection and the regulation of defense mechanisms. In The Unity of Knowledge, N.Y. Acad. Sci., New York (in press).Google Scholar
  180. Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., and Silva, P. A. (1998). Comorbid mental disorders: Implications for treatment and sample selection. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 107: 305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. NICHD (1998). The National Institute of Child Health and Development Early Child Care Research Network: Early child care and self-control, compliance, and problem behavior at twentyfour and thirty-six months. Child Dev. 69: 1145–1170.Google Scholar
  182. Nichols, R. C. (1978). Twin studies of ability, personality and interests. Homo 29: 158–173.Google Scholar
  183. Nigg, J. T., and Goldsmith, H. H. (1998). Developmental psychopathology, personality, and temperament: Reflections on recent behavioral genetics research. Hum. Biol. 70: 387–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Nyborg, H. (ed.) (1997). The Scientific Study of Human Nature: Tribute to Hans J. Evsenck at Eighty, Pergamon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  185. Olson, J. M., Vernon, P. A., and Harris, J. A. (2001). The heritability of attitudes: A study of twins. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 80: 845–860.Google Scholar
  186. Ones, D. S. (1996). Bandwidth-fidelity dilemma in personality measurement for personnel selection. J. Organiz. Behav. 17: 609–626.Google Scholar
  187. Orr, H. A. (1999). An evolutionary dead end? Review of Schlichting, C. D., and Pigliucci, M. Phenotypic evolution: A reaction norm perspective. Science 285: 343–344.Google Scholar
  188. Ostrander, E. A., Galibert, F., and Patterson, D. E. (2000). Canine genetics comes of age. Trends Genet. 16: 117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Owen, M. J., Cardno, A. G., and O'Donovan, M. C. (2000). Psychiatric genetics: Back to the future. Mol. Psychiatry 5: 22–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Panksepp, J., and Panksepp, J. B. (2000). The seven sins of evolutionary psychology. Evol. Cognit. 6: 108–131.Google Scholar
  191. Pedersen, N. L., and Reynolds, C. A. (1998). Stability and change in adult personality: Genetic and environmental components. Eur. J. Personal. 12: 365–386.Google Scholar
  192. Pervin, L. A., and John, O. P. (eds.) (1999). Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2nd ed., Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  193. Phelps, J. A., Davis, J. O., and Schartz, K. M. (1997). Nature, nurture, and twin research strategies. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 6: 117–121.Google Scholar
  194. Phillips, D. I. W. (1993). Twin studies in medical research: Can they tell us whether diseases are genetically determined? Lancet 341: 1008–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Pinker, S. (1997). How the Mind Works, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  196. Plomin, R., and Caspi, A. (1998). DNA and personality. Eur. J. Personal. 12: 387–407.Google Scholar
  197. Plomin, R., and Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behav. Brain Sci. 10: 1–60.Google Scholar
  198. Plomin, R., and Caspi, A. (1999). Behavior genetics and personality. In Pervin, L. A., and John, O. P. (eds.), Handbook of Personality Research: Theory and Research, Guilford, New York.Google Scholar
  199. Plomin, R., Corley, R., Caspi, A., Fulker, D. W., and DeFries, J. (1998). Adoption results for self-reported personality: Evidence for nonadditive genetic effects? J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 75: 211–218.Google Scholar
  200. Plutchik, R. (2001). The nature of emotions. Am. Sci. 89: 344–350.Google Scholar
  201. Prescott, C. A., Johnson, R. C., and McArdle, J. J. (1999). Chorion type as a possible influence on the results and interpretation of twin study data. Twin Res. 2: 244–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Price, B. (1950). Primary biases in twin studies, a review of prenatal and natal difference-producing factors in monozygotic pairs. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2: 293–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Price, B. (1978). Bibliography on prenatal and natal influences in twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 27: 97–113.Google Scholar
  204. Ramachandran, V. S., and Blakeslee, S. (1998). Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind, William Morrow, New York.Google Scholar
  205. Reiss, D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Hetherington, E. M., and Plomin, R. (2000). The Relationship Code: Deciphering Genetic and Social Influence on Adolescent Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  206. Richards, R. J. (1987). Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  207. Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., and Strelau, J. (1997). Genetic and environmental influences on personality: A study of twins reared together using the self-and peer report NEO-FFI scales. J. Personal. 65: 449–475.Google Scholar
  208. Riese, M. L. (1999). Effects of chorion type on neonatal temperament differences in monozygotic twin pairs. Behav. Genet. 29: 87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., and Wrightsman, L. S. (eds.) (1991). Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  210. Roff, D. A., and Mousseau, T. A. (1987). Quantitative genetics and fitness: lessons from drosophila. Heredity 58: 103–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Rose, R. J. (1995). Genes and human behavior. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 46: 625–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Rowe, D. C. (1982). Monozygotic twin cross-correlations as a validation of personality structure: A test of the semantic bias hypothesis. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 43: 1072–1079.Google Scholar
  213. Rowe, D. C., Stever, C., Gard, J. M. C., Cleveland, H. H., Sanders, M. L., Abramowitz, A., Kozol, S. T., Mohr, J. H., Sherman, S. L., and Waldman, I. D. (1998). The relation of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) to symptoms of internalizing disorders in children. Behav. Genet. 28: 215–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rushton, J. P., Fulker, D. W., Neale, M. C., Nias, D. K. B., and Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Altruism and aggression: The heritability of individual differences. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 50: 1192–1198.Google Scholar
  215. Rutter, M., Pickels, A., Murray, R., and Eaves, L. J. (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychol. Bull. 127: 291–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990': Development and individual differences. Child Dev. 63: 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Scarr, S. (1997). Behavior genetic and socialization theories of intelligence: Truce and reconciliation. In Sternberg, R. J., and Grigorenko, E. L. (eds.), Intelligence: Heredity and Environment, Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 3–41.Google Scholar
  218. Scarr, S., and Weinberg, R. (1981). The transmission of authoritarianism in families: Genetic resemblance in social-political attitudes. In Scarr, S. (ed.), Race, Social Class, and Individual Differences, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  219. Scarr, S., Webber, P. L., Weinberg, R. A., and Wittig, M. A. (1981). Personality resemblance among adolescents and their parents in biologically related and adoptive families. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 40: 885–898.Google Scholar
  220. Schmidt, F. L., and Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychol. Bull. 124: 262–274.Google Scholar
  221. Scott, J. P., and Fuller, J. L. (1965). Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  222. Segal, N. L., and Macdonald, K. B. (1998). Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: Unified perspective on personality research. Hum. Biol. 70: 159–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Sherman, S. L., DeFries, J. C., Gottesman, I. I., Loehlin, J. C., Meyer, J. M., Pelias, M. Z., Rice, J., and Waldman, I. D. (1997). Recent developments in human behavioral genetics: Past accomplishments and future directions. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 60: 1265–1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Simonton, D. K. (2001). Talent development as a multidimensional, multiplicative, and dynamic process. Curr. Direct. Psychol. Sci. 10: 39–42.Google Scholar
  225. Simonton, E. K. (1999). Origins of Genius: Darwinian Perspectives on Creativity, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  226. Stallings, M. C., Hewitt, J. K., Cloninger, C. R., Heath, A. C., and Eaves, L. J. (1996). Genetic and environmental structure of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: Three or four temperament dimension? J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 70: 127–140.Google Scholar
  227. Stearns, S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  228. Stent, G. S. (1981). Strength and weakness of the genetic approach to the development of the nervous system. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 4: 163–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Correcting estimates of shared environmental variance for range restriction in adoption studies using a truncated multivariate normal model. Behav. Genet. 28: 429–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Implications of the restricted range of family environments for estimates of heritability and nonshared environment in behavior-genetic adoption studies. Psychol. Bull. 125: 392–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Strobel, A., Wehr, A., Michel, A., and Brocke, B. (1999). Association between the dompamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III polymorphism and measures of Novelty Seeking in a German population. Mol. Genet. 4: 378–384.Google Scholar
  232. Sulloway, F. J. (1996). Born to Rebel, New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  233. Szathmáry, E., Jordán, F., and Pál, C. (2001). Can genes explain biological complexity? Science 292.Google Scholar
  234. Tang, Y.-A., Shimizu, E., Dube, G. R., Rampon, C., Kerchner, G. A., Zhuo, M., Liu, G., and Tsien, J. Z. (1999). Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice. Nature 401: 63–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Tellegen, A. (1985). Structure of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. In A. H., Tuma, and J. D. Maser, (eds.), Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 681–706.Google Scholar
  236. Tesser, A. (1993). The importance of heritability in psychological research: The case of attitudes. Psychol. Rev. 100: 129–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Thornhill, R. (1997). The concept of an evolved adaptation. In Bock, G. R., and Cardew, G. (eds.), Characterizing Human Psychological Adaptations: Ciba Foundation Symposium 208, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 4–13.Google Scholar
  238. Tooby, J., and Cosmides, L. (1990). On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: The role of genetics and adaptation. J. Personal. 58: 17–68.Google Scholar
  239. Tooby, J., and Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. (eds.), The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 19–136.Google Scholar
  240. Trumbetta, S. L., and Gottesman, I. I. (2000). Endophenotpes for marital status in the NAS-NRD Twin Registry. In Rodgers, J. L., Rowe, D. C., and Miller, W. B. (eds.), Genetic Influence on Human Fertility and Sexuality, Kluwer, Boston, pp. 253–269.Google Scholar
  241. Trut, L. N. (1999). Early canid domestication: The farm-fox experiment. Am. Sci. 87: 160–169.Google Scholar
  242. Turkheimer, E. (2000). Three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean. Curr. Direct. in Psychol. Sci. 9: 160–164.Google Scholar
  243. Turkheimer, E., and Gottesman, I. I. (1996). Simulating the dynamics of genes and environment in development. Dev. Psychopathol. 8: 667–677.Google Scholar
  244. Turkheimer, E., and Waldron, M. (2000). Nonshared environment: A theoretical, methodological, and quantitative review. Psychol. Bull. 126: 78–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Turkheimer, E., Lovett, G., Robinette, C. D., and Gottesman, I. I. (1992). The heritability of divorce: New data and theoretical implications. Paper delivered at the Behavior Genetics Association Annual Meetings, Boulder CO.Google Scholar
  246. Turner, J. R., Cardon, L. R., and Hewitt, J. K. (eds.) (1995). Behavior Genetic Approaches in Behavioral Medicine, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  247. van der Valk, J. C., Verhulst, F. C., Neale, M. C., and Boomsma, D. I. (1998). Longitudinal genetic analysis of problem behaviors in biologically elated and unrelated adoptees. Behav. Genet. 28: 365–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Vernon, P. A., McCarthy, J. M., Johnson, A. M., Jang, K. L., and Harris, J. A. (1999). Individual differences in multiple dimensions of aggression: A univariate and multivariate genetic analysis. Twin Res. 2: 16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Viken, R. J., Rose, R. J., Kaprio, J., and Koskenvuo, M. (1994). A developmental-genetic analysis of adult personality: Extraversion and neuroticism from 18 to 59. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 67: 722–730.Google Scholar
  250. Vogler, G. P., McClearn, G. E., Snieder, H., Boomsma, D. I., Palmer, R., de Knijff, P., and Slagboom, P. E. (1997). Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Behav. Med. 22: 141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Wallace, A. R. (1889). Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection with Some of Its Applications, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  252. Waller, N. G. (1999). Evaluating the structure of personality. In Cloninger, C. R. (ed.), Personality and Psychopathology, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, pp. 155–197.Google Scholar
  253. Waller, N. G., and Meehl, P. E. (1998). Multivariate Taxometric Procedures: Distinguishing Types from Continua, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  254. Waller, N. G., and Shaver, P. R. (1994). The importance of nongenetic influences on romantic love styles: A twin family study. Psychol. Sci. 5: 268–274.Google Scholar
  255. Waller, N. G., Kojetin, B. A., Bouchard, T. J., Jr., Lykken, D. T., and Tellegen, A. (1990). Genetic and environmental influences on religious interests, attitudes, and values: A study of twins reared apart and together. Psychol. Sci. 1: 138–142.Google Scholar
  256. Waller, N. G., Lykken, D. T., and Tellegen, A. (1995). Occupational interests, leisure time interests, and personality: Three domains or one? Findings from the Minnesota Twin Registry. In Dawis, R., and Lubinski, D. (eds.), Assessing Individual Differences in Human Behavior: New Concepts, Methods, and Findings, Davies-Black, Palo Alto, CA, pp. 238–259.Google Scholar
  257. Watson, D., and Clark, L. A. (1994). Introduction to the Special Issue on Personality and Psychopathology. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 103: 3–5.Google Scholar
  258. Widiger, T. A., and Snakis, L. M. (2000). Adult psychopathology: Issues and controversies. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 51: 377–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Williams, G. C. (1975). Sex and Evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  260. Williams, R. J. (1956). Biochemical Individuality, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  261. Wilson, D. S. (1994). Adaptive genetic variation and human evolutionary psychology. Ethol. Sociobiol. 15: 219–235.Google Scholar
  262. Wilson, E. O. (1978). On Human Nature, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  263. Wolf, J. B., Brodie, E. D. I., and Wade, M. J., (Eds.) (2000). Epistasis and the Evolutionary Process, Oxford, New York.Google Scholar
  264. Young, L. J., Nilsen, R., Waymire, K. G., MacGregor, G. R., and Insel, T. R., (1999). Increased affiliative response to vasopressin in mice expressing the V1a receptor from a monogamous vole. Nature 400: 766–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Zeder, M. A., and Hesse, B. (2000). The initial domestication of goats (Capra hircus) in the Zarros mountains 10,000 years ago. Science 287: 2254–2257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Zuckerman, M., and Cloninger, C. R. (1996). Relationship between Cloninger', Zuckerman' and Eysenck' dimensions of personality. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 21: 283–285.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas J. BouchardJr.
    • 1
  • John C. Loehlin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolis
  2. 2.University of TexasAustin

Personalised recommendations