Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 123–136 | Cite as

Cynicism as a Fundamental Dimension of Moral Decision-Making: A Scale Development

  • James H. Turner
  • Sean R. Valentine


Altruism and cynicism are two fundamental algorithms of moral decision-making. This derives from the evolution of cooperative behavior and reciprocal altruism and the need to avoid being taken advantage of. Rushton (1986) developed a self-report scale to measure altruism, however no scale to measure cynicism has been developed for use in ethics research. Following a discussion of reciprocal altruism and cynicism, this article presents an 11-item self-report scale to measure cynicism, developed and validated using a sample of 271 customer-service and sales personnel.

altruism cynicism ethics morality 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • James H. Turner
    • 1
  • Sean R. Valentine
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Management, Marketing, and Real Estate, UPO 760Morehead State UniversityMoreheadU.S.A.
  2. 2.University of WyomingU.S.A

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