Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 439–461

The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish – a review

  • P. Collen
  • R.J. Gibson
Article

Abstract

The Eurasian and North American beavers aresimilar in their ecological requirements, andrequire water deep enough to cover the entranceto their lodge or burrow. A food cache isoften built next to the lodge or burrow, exceptin some southern areas. On small streams (upto fourth order) dams are frequently built tocreate an impoundment, generally on lowgradient streams, although at high populationdensities dams may be built on steeper gradientstreams. On large rivers or in lakes, simply alodge with its food cache may be built. Thebeaver is a keystone riparian species in thatthe landscape can be considerably altered byits activities and a new ecosystem created. The stream above a dam changes from lotic tolentic conditions. There are hydrological,temperature and chemical changes, depending ontypes of dams and locations. Although theinvertebrates may be fewer per unit area, totalnumber of organisms increases, and diversityincreases as the pond ages. In cool, smallorder streams, the impoundments provide betterhabitat for large trout, possibly creatingangling opportunities. However, at sites wherewater temperatures rise above their optimumpreferenda, salmonids may be replaced by otherspecies, such as cyprinids, catostomids,percids or centrarchids. As the habitat isaltered, interactions amongst co-habiting species may change. For example, brown troutor brook trout (charr) may become dominant overAtlantic salmon. In warm water streams theremay be a shift from faster water dwellers topond dwellers. Larger bodied fish, such ascentrarchids and esocids may displace smallerbodied fish such as cyprinids, providing betterangling. Refugia from high or low water flows,low oxygen or high temperatures, may beprovided in adverse conditions in winter orsummer. However, in some cases dams areobstructions to upstream migration, andsediment may be deposited in former spawningareas. The practicality and benefits ofintroducing or restoring beaver populationswill vary according to location, and should beconsidered in conjunction with a managementplan to control their densities.

beaver Castor fiber Castor canadensis fish salmonids stream communities stream habitats 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, A.K. (1949) Beaver vs. trout. Mich. Conserv. Mar- Apr., pp. 15–17.Google Scholar
  2. Alabaster, J.S. and Lloyd, R. (1980) Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish. Butterworths, London, 297 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Aldous, S.E. (1938) Beaver food utilisation studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 2, 215–222.Google Scholar
  4. Aleksiuk, M. (1970) The seasonal food regime of Arctic beavers. Ecology 51, 264–270.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, M.D. (1998) Effects of beaver (Castor canadensis) impoundments on stream temperature and fish community species composition and growth in selected tributaries of Miramichi River, New Brunswick. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. no. 2227, 53 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Anon. (1980) Stream enhancement guide. Fisheries and Oceans, Govt. Canada, 73 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Apple, L.L., Smith, B.H., Dunder, J.D. and Baker, B.W. (1984) The use of beavers for riparian/aquatic habitat restoration of cold desert gulley cut stream systems in southwestern Wyoming. In Proceedings, American Fisheries Society/Wildlife Society Joint Chapter Meeting, Feb. 8- 10. Logan, Utah, pp. 123–130.Google Scholar
  8. Avery, E.L. (1983) A bibliography of beaver, trout, wildlife and forest relationships. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Technical Bulletin No. 137. Madison.Google Scholar
  9. Avery, E.L. (1992) Effects of removing beaver dams upon a northern Wisconsin brook trout stream. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Study No. 406, pp. 1–59.Google Scholar
  10. Bailey, R. and Stephens, R.F. (1951) Effects of beavers on fish. West Virginia Conservation Sept., 11- 16.Google Scholar
  11. Balodis, M.M. (1994) Beaver population of Latvia: history, development and management. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences B. no. 7/8(564/565), pp. 122–127.Google Scholar
  12. Balon, E.K. and Chadwick, E.M.P. (1979) Reclamation of a perch lake: a case study using density estimates and the guild concept. Arch. Hydrobiol. 85, 543–547.Google Scholar
  13. Barnes, D.M. and Mallik, A.U. (1996) Use of woody plants in construction of beaver dams in northern Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 74, 1781–1786.Google Scholar
  14. Barnes, W.J. and Dibble, E. (1988) The effects of beaver in riverbank forest succession. Can. J. Bot. 66, 40–44.Google Scholar
  15. Basey, J.M., Jenkins, S.H. and Busher, P.E. (1988) Optimal central place foraging by beavers: Tree-size selection in relation to defensive chemicals of quaking aspen. Oecologia 76, 278–282.Google Scholar
  16. Beard, E.B. (1953) The importance of beaver in waterfowl management at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge. J. Wildl. Manage. 17, 398-436.Google Scholar
  17. Behmer, D.J. and Hawkins, C.P. (1986) Effects of overhead canopy on macroinvertebrate production in a Utah stream. Freshwater Biol. 16, 287–300.Google Scholar
  18. Beier, P. and Barrett, R.H. (1987) Beaver habitat use and impact in Truckee River Basin, California. J. Wildl. Manage. 51, 794–799.Google Scholar
  19. Belovsky, G.E. (1984) Summer diet optimization by beavers. Am. Mid. Nat. 111, 209–222.Google Scholar
  20. Bergstrom, D. (1985) Beavers: biologists “rediscover” a natural resource. Forestry Research West. United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. October 1985. 5 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Bilby, R.E. and Bisson, P.A. (1992) Allochthonous versus autochthonous organic matter contributions to the trophic support of fish populations in clear-cut and old-growth forested streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49, 540–551.Google Scholar
  22. Boyce, M. (1974) Beaver population ecology in interior Alaska. M.Sc. thesis, Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks. 161 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Bradt, G.W. (1947) Michigan beaver management. Mich. Dep. Conserv. Game Div. 56 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Brenner, F.J. (1962) Foods consumed by beavers in Crawford County, Pennsylvania. J. Wildl. Manage. 26, 104–107.Google Scholar
  25. Brooks, R.P., Fleming, M.W. and Kennelly, J.J. (1980) Beaver colony response to fertility control: evaluating a concept. J. Wildl. Manage. 44, 568–575.Google Scholar
  26. Bryant, M.D. (1984) The role of beaver dams as coho salmon habitat in southeast Alaska streams. In: Walton, J.M. and Houston, D.B. (eds.), Proceedings of the Olympic Wild Fish Conference. Fisheries Technology Programme. Peninsula College, Port Angeles, Washington, pp. 183–192.Google Scholar
  27. Bump, G. (1941) Problems of beaver management in a fish and game programme. Sixth North American Wildlife Conference. February, pp. 300–306.Google Scholar
  28. Burns, D.A. and McDonnell (1998) Effects of a beaver pond on runoff processes: comparison of two headwater catchments. J. Hydrobiol. 205, 248–264.Google Scholar
  29. Butler, D.R. (1991) Beavers as agents of biogeomorphic change: A review and suggestions for teaching exercises. J. Geogr. 90, 210–217.Google Scholar
  30. Butler, D.R. (1995) Zoogeomorphology: Animals as Geomorphic Agents. Cambridge University Press. New York, NY, 219 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P. (1995) Sedimentation rates and patterns in beaver ponds in a mountain environment. Geomorphology 13, 255–269.Google Scholar
  32. Call, M.W. (1966) Beaver pond ecology and beaver-trout relationships in southeastern Wyoming. Univ. Wyoming, Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, 296 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Chisholm, I.M., Hubert, W.A. and Wesche, T.A. (1987) Winter stream conditions and use of habitat by brook trout in high elevation Wyoming streams. Trans. Am. Fis. Soc. 116, 176–184.Google Scholar
  34. Cirmo, C.P. and Driscoll, C.T. (1993) Beaver pond biogeochemistry: acid neutralizing capacity generation in a headwater wetland. Wetlands 13, 277–292.Google Scholar
  35. Clifford, H.F., Wiley, G.M. and Casey, R.J. (1993) Macroinvertebrates of a beaver-altered boreal stream of Alberta, Canada, with special reference to the fauna of the dams. Can. J. Zool. 71, 1439–1447.Google Scholar
  36. Coleman, R.L. and Dahm C.N. (1990) Stream geomorphology: effects on periphyton standing crop and primary production. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 9, 293–302.Google Scholar
  37. Collen, P. (1997) Review of the potential impact of re-introducing Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L. on the ecology and movement of native fishes, and the likely implications for current angling practices in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Review No. 86, 53 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Cook, D.B. (1940) Beaver-trout relations. J. Mammal. 21, 397–401.Google Scholar
  39. Courcelles, R. and Nault, R. (1983) Beaver programs in the James Bay area, Quebec, Canada. Acta Zool. Fenn. 174, 129–131.Google Scholar
  40. Cunjak, R.A. (1996) Winter habitat of selected stream fishes and potential impacts from land-use activity. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53 (Suppl.1), 267–282.Google Scholar
  41. Cunjak, R.A., Caissie, D., El-Jabi, N., Hardie, P., Conlon, J.M., Pollock, T.L., Giberson, D.J. and Komadina-Douthwright, S.M. (1993) The Catamaran Brook (New Brunswick) Habitat Research Project: biological, physical and chemical conditions (1990- 1992). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1914, 81 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Cunjak, R.A. and Therrien, J. (1998) Inter-stage survival of wild juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Fish. Manage. Ecol. 5, 209–223.Google Scholar
  43. Curry-Lindahl, K. (1967) The beaver, Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 in Sweden-extermination and reappearance. Acta Theriol. 12, 1–15.Google Scholar
  44. Dahm, C.N. and Sedell, J.R. (1986) The role of beaver on nutrient cycling in streams. J. Colo.-Wyo. Acad. Sci. 18, 32.Google Scholar
  45. Dahm, C.N., Trotter, E.H. and Sedell, J.R. (1987) Role of anaerobic zones and processes in stream ecosystem productivity. In: Averett, R.C. and McKnight, D.M. (eds.), Chemical Quality of Water and the Hydrologic Cycle. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Mich., pp. 157–178.Google Scholar
  46. Danilov, P.I. (1992) Introduction of North-American semiaquatic mammals in Karelia and its consequences for aboriginal species. Semiaquatische Säugetiere., Wiss. Beitr. Univ. Halle, pp. 267–276.Google Scholar
  47. Danilov, P.I. (1995) Canadian and Eurasian beavers in Russian North-west (distribution, number, comparative ecology). The third Nordic beaver symposium. Helsinki, Finland, pp. 10–16.Google Scholar
  48. Danilov, P.I. and Kan'shiev, V.Ya. (1982) Some morphological and ecological features of the Eurasian and Canadian beaver in the USSR north west. Fauna: ecologiya ptic (mlekopitajvscic) Severo-Zapada SSSR, Petrozavodsk, pp. 109–123.Google Scholar
  49. Danilov, P.I. and Kan'shiev, V.Ya. (1983) The state of populations and ecological characteristics of European (Castor fiber L.) and Canadian (Castor canadensis Kuhl.) beavers in the northwestern USSR. Acta Zool. Fennica. 174, 95–97.Google Scholar
  50. Davis, J.C. (1975) Waterborne dissolved oxygen requirements and criteria with particular emphasis on the Canadian environment. Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Quality, National Research Council of Canada, Ottowa. NRCC No. 14100, 111 pp.Google Scholar
  51. Davis, J.W. (1986) Options for managing livestock in riparian habitats. Trans. 51st N. A. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf. 290–297.Google Scholar
  52. de Almeida, M.H. (1987) Nuisance furbearer damage control in urban and suburban areas. In: Novak, M., Baker, J.A., Obbard, M.E. and Malloch, B. (eds.) Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, pp. 996–1006.Google Scholar
  53. Devito, K.J. and Dillon, P.J. (1993) Importance of runoff and winter anoxia to the P and N dynamics of a beaver pond. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50, 2222–2234.Google Scholar
  54. Dillon, P.J., Molot, L.A. and Scheider, W.A. (1991) Phosphorus and nitrogen export from forested stream catchments in central Ontario. J. Environ. Qual. 20, 857–864.Google Scholar
  55. Dubuc, L.J., Krohn, W.B. and Owen, R.B. (1990) Predicting occurrence of river otters by habitat on Mount Desert Island, Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. 54, 594–599.Google Scholar
  56. Duncan, S.L. (1984) Leaving it to beaver. Environment 26, 41–45.Google Scholar
  57. Ermala, A., Helminen, M. and Lahti, S. (1989) Some aspects of the occurrence, abundance and future of the Finnish beaver population. Suomen Riista 35, 108–118.Google Scholar
  58. Finnigan, R.J. and Marshall, D.E. (1997). Managing beaver habitat for salmonids. In: Slaney, P.A. and Zaldokas, D. (eds.) Fish Habitat Rehabilitation Procedures. Watershed Restoration Technical Circular No. 9, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 15-1–15-11.Google Scholar
  59. Forbes, G.J. and Theberge, J.B. (1996) Response by wolves to prey variation in central Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 74, 1511–1520.Google Scholar
  60. Fox, M.G. and Keast, A. (1990) Effects of winterkill on population structure, body size, and prey consumption patterns of pumpkinseed in isolated beaver ponds. Can. J. Zool. 68, 2489–2498.Google Scholar
  61. France, R.L. (1997) The importance of beaver lodges in structuring littoral communities in boreal headwater lakes. Can. J. Zool. 75, 1009–1013.Google Scholar
  62. Francis, M.M., Naiman, R.J. and Melillo, J.M. (1985) Nitrogen fixation in subarctic streams influenced by beaver (Castor canadensis). Hydrobiologia 121, 193–202.Google Scholar
  63. Fraser, J.M. (1982) An atypical brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) spawning area. Envir. Biol. Fish. 7, 385–388.Google Scholar
  64. Frisch, K. von. (1975) Animal Architecture. Hutchinson of London, 306 pp.Google Scholar
  65. Fryxell, J.M. and Doucet, C.M. (1991) Provisioning time and central place foraging in beavers. Can. J. Zool. 69, 1308–1313.Google Scholar
  66. Gard, R. (1961) Effects of beaver on trout in Sagehen Creek, California. J. Wildl. Manage. 25, 221–242.Google Scholar
  67. Gard, R. and Flittner, G.A. (1974) Distribution and abundance of fishes in Sagehen Creek, California. J. Wildl. Manage. 38, 347–358.Google Scholar
  68. Gard, R. and Seegrist, D.W. (1972) Abundance and harvest of trout in Sagehen Creek, California. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 3, 463–477.Google Scholar
  69. Gibson, R.J. (1969) East Blue Lake fisheries investigation, 1967- 1968. Manitoba Department of Mines and Natural Resources, Fisheries Branch, Rept. No. 69-7, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Gibson, R.J. (1993) The Atlantic salmon in freshwater: spawning, rearing and production. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries 3, 39–73.Google Scholar
  71. Gibson, R.J., Hammar, J. and Mitchell, G. (1999) The Star Lake hydroelectric project - an example of the failure of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. In: Ryan P.M. (ed.), Assessment and impacts of megaprojects. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society of Environmental Biologists in collaboration with the Newfoundland and Labrador Environment Network, St. John's, Nfld. Canada, October 1- 3, 1998. Canadian Society of Environmental Biologists. Toronto. x + 233p., pp. 147–176.Google Scholar
  72. Gibson, R.J., Hillier, K.G. and Whalen, R.R. (1996) Status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Highlands River, St. George's Bay (SFA 13), Newfoundland, 1995. DFO Atl. Fish. Res. Doc. 96/39, 35 pp.Google Scholar
  73. Gill, D. (1972) The evolution of a discrete beaver habitat in the MacKenzie river Delta, Northwest Territories. Can. Field-Nat. 86, 233–239.Google Scholar
  74. Grasse, J.E. (1951) Beaver ecology and management in the Rockies. J. For. 49, 3–6.Google Scholar
  75. Grasse, J.E. (1979) Some trout-raising alternatives... irrigation ditches and beaver ponds. Salmonid 3, 12–15.Google Scholar
  76. Grasse, J.E. and Putnam, E.F. (1955) Beaver Management and ecology in Wyoming. Wyo. Game and Fish Comm. Bull. No 6. Cheyenne, 75 pp.Google Scholar
  77. Grover, A.M. and Baldassarre, G.A. (1995) Bird species richness within beaver ponds in south-central New York. Wetlands 15, 108–118.Google Scholar
  78. Hägglund, Å. and Sjöberg, G. (1999) Effects of beaver dams on the fish fauna of forest streams. Forest Ecol. Manag. 115, 259–266.Google Scholar
  79. Hakala, J.B. (1952) The life history and general ecology of the beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) in interior Alaska. M.Sc. thesis Univ. Alaska. Fairbanks. 181 pp.Google Scholar
  80. Hale, J.G. (1966) Influence of beaver on some trout streams along the Minnesota north shore of Lake Superior. Minn. Bur. Fish. Invest. Rep. No. 244, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  81. Hall, J.G. (1960) Willow and aspen in the ecology of beaver on Sagehen Creek, California. Ecology 41, 484–494.Google Scholar
  82. Hammerson, G.A. (1994) Beaver (Castor canadensis): Ecosystem alterations, management, and monitoring. Nat. Areas. J. 14, 44–57.Google Scholar
  83. Hanson, W.D. and Campbell, R.S. (1963) The effects of pool size and beaver activity on distribution and abundance of warm-water fishes in a North Missouri stream. Am. Midl. Nat. 69, 136–149.Google Scholar
  84. Hartman, G. (1994a) Ecological studies of a reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber) population. Doctoral dissertation, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 111 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Hartman, G. (1994b) Long-term population development of a reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber) population in Sweden. Conserv. Biol. 8, 713–717.Google Scholar
  86. Hartman, G. (1997) Notes on age at dispersal of beaver (Castor fiber) in an expanding population. Can. J. Zool. 75, 959–962.Google Scholar
  87. Hatler, D.F. (1981) Furbearers and traplines along the proposed Alaska Highway Gas Pipeline in northern British Columbia. Unpubl. Rep. for Westcoast Transmission Co., Ltd., Vancouver, 89 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Heland, M. and Beall, E. (1997) Étude expérimentale de la compétition interspécifique entre juvéniles de saumon coho, Oncorhynchus kisutch, et de saumon atlantique, Salmo salar, en eau douce. Bull. Fr. Peche Piscic. 344/345, 241–252.Google Scholar
  89. Hicks, J.T. (1977) Beaver and their control in Georgia. Tech. Bull. WL 2, Ga. Dept.Natur. Resources, Atlanta. 23 pp.Google Scholar
  90. Hill, E.P. (1976) Control methods for nuisance beaver in the southeastern United States. Proc. Vert. Pest Conf. 7, 85–98.Google Scholar
  91. Hill, E.P. (1982) Beaver, Castor canadensis. In: Chapman, J.A. and Feldhammer, G.A. (eds.), Wild Mammals of North America. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 256–281.Google Scholar
  92. Hodgdon, K.W. and Hunt, J.H. (1953) Beaver management in Maine. Maine Dept. Inland Fisheries and Game. GameDiv. Bull 3, 102 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Huey, W.S. and Wolfrum, W.H. (1956) Beaver-trout relations in New Mexico. Prog. Fish-Culturist 18, 70–74.Google Scholar
  94. Ives, R.I. (1942) The beaver-meadow complex. J. Geomorphol. 5, 191–203.Google Scholar
  95. Jakober, M.J., McMahon, T.E., Thurow, R.F. and Clancy, C.G. (1998) Role of stream ice on fall and winter movements and habitat use by bull trout and cutthroat trout inMontana headwater streams. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 127, 223–235.Google Scholar
  96. Jenkins, S.H. (1979) Seasonal and year-to-year differences in food selection by beavers. Oecologia 44, 112–116.Google Scholar
  97. Jenkins, S.H. (1980) A size-distance relation in food selection by beavers. Ecology 61, 740–746.Google Scholar
  98. Jenkins, S.H. and Busher, P.E. (1979) Castor canadensis. Mammalian species. Am. Soc. Mammal. 120, 1–8.Google Scholar
  99. Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J. (1987) Boundary dynamics at the aquatic-terrestrial interface: The influence of beaver and geomorphology. Landscape Ecol. 1, 47–57.Google Scholar
  100. Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J. (1990) Browse selection by beaver: effects on riparian forest compostion. Can. J. For. Res. 20, 1036–1043.Google Scholar
  101. Keast, A. and Fox, M.G. (1990) Fish community structure, spatial distribution and feeding ecology in a beaver pond. Env. Biol. Fish. 27, 201–214.Google Scholar
  102. Keiper, R.R. (1966) The distribution and faunal succession of the macroscopic bottom fauna in three different aged beaver ponds. M.Sc. thesis, Univ. of Massachusetts. 96 pp.Google Scholar
  103. Keith, R.M., Bjorrn, T.C., Meehan, W.R., Hetrick, N.J. and Brusven, M.A. (1998) Response of juvenile salmonids to riparian and instream cover modifications in small streams flowing through second-growth forests of southeast Alaska. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 127, 889–907.Google Scholar
  104. Klotz, R.L. (1998) Influence of beaver ponds on the phosphorus concentration of stream water. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55, 1228–1235.Google Scholar
  105. Knudsen, G.J. (1962) Relationship of beaver to forests, trout and wildlife in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Department. Technical bulletin No. 25, Madison, 50 pp.Google Scholar
  106. Komadina-Douthwright, S.M. (1994) Effects of beaver (Castor canadensis) on stream water quality under conditions of prolonged snow and ice cover (winter 1991-1992). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1986, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  107. Kondolf, G.M., Cada, G.F., Sale, M.J. and Felando, T. (1991) Distribution and stability of potential salmonid spawning gravels in steep boulder-bed streams of the Eastern Sierra Nevada. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 120, 177–186.Google Scholar
  108. Lahti, S. and Helminen, M. (1974) The beaver Castor fiber (L.) and Castor canadensis (Kuhl) in Finland. Acta Theriol. 19, 177–189.Google Scholar
  109. Lavrov, L.S. and Orlov, V.N. (1973) Karyotypes and taxonomy of modern beavers (Castor, Castoridae, Mammalie). Zool Zhur. 52, 734–742.Google Scholar
  110. Lawrence, W.H., Fay, L.D. and Graham, S.A. (1956) A report on the beaver die-off in Michigan. J. Wildl. Manage. 20, 184–187.Google Scholar
  111. Leidholt-Bruner, K., Hibbs, D.E. and McComb, W.C. (1992) Beaver dam locations and their effects on distribution and abundance of coho salmon fry in two coastal Oregon streams. NW. Sci. 66, 218–223.Google Scholar
  112. Macdonald, D.W., Tattersall, F.H., Brown, E.D. and Balharry, D. (1995) Reintroducing the European beaver to Britain: nostalgic meddling or restoring biodiversity. Mammal Rev. 25, 161–200.Google Scholar
  113. Maret, T.J., Parker, M. and Fannin, T.E. (1987) The effect of beaver ponds on the nonpoint source water quality of a stream in southwestern Wyoming. Wat. Res. 21, 263–268.Google Scholar
  114. McDowell, D.M. and Naiman, R.J. (1986) Structure and function of a benthic invertebrate stream community as influenced by beaver. (Castor canadensis). Oecologia 68, 481–489.Google Scholar
  115. McGinley, M.A. and Whitham, T.G. (1985) Central place foraging by beavers (Castor canadensis): a test of foraging predictions and the impact of selective feeding on the growth form of cottonwoods (Populus fermontii). Oecologia 66, 558–562.Google Scholar
  116. McRae, G. and Edwards, C.J. (1994) Thermal characteristics of Wisconsin headwater streams occupied by beaver: Implications for brook trout habitat. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 123, 641–656.Google Scholar
  117. Medwecka-Korna's, A. and Hawro, R. (1993) Vegetation on beaver dams in the Ojcó w National Park (Southern Poland). Phytocoenologia 23, 611–618.Google Scholar
  118. Miller, J.E. and Yarrow, G.K. (1994) Beavers - damage prevention and control methods. In: Hygnstrom, S.E., Timm, R.M. and Larson, G.E. (eds.), Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Univ. Nebraska, U.S. Dept. Agriculture, and Great Plains Agric. Comm., U.S., pp. B1–B11.Google Scholar
  119. Müller-Schwarze, D. (1992) Beaver waterworks. Natural History 5/92, 52–53.Google Scholar
  120. Munther, G.L. (1983) Integration of beaver into forest management. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the American fisheries Society, Laramie, Wyoming, pp. 73–80.Google Scholar
  121. Murphy, M.L., Heifetz, J., Thedinga, J.F., Johnson, S.W. and Koski, K.V. (1989) Habitat utilisation by juvenile Pacific salmon (Onchorynchus) in the glacial Taku River, southeast Alaska. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 1677–1685.Google Scholar
  122. Myrberget, S. (1967) The beaver in Norway. Acta Theriol. 12, 17–26.Google Scholar
  123. Naiman, R.J. and Melillo, J.M. (1984) Nitrogen budget of a subartic stream altered by beaver (Castor canadensis). Oecologia 62, 150–155.Google Scholar
  124. Naiman, R.J., Johnston, C.A. and Kelley, J.C. (1988) Alteration of North American streams by beaver. Bio. Science 38, 753–762.Google Scholar
  125. Naiman, R.J., McDowell, D.M., and Farr, B.S. (1984) The influence of beaver (Castor canadensis) on the production dynamics of aquatic insects. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 22, 1801–1810.Google Scholar
  126. Naiman, R.J., Melillo, J.M. and Hobbie, J.E. (1986) Ecosystem alteration of boreal forest streams by beaver (Castor canadensis). Ecology 67, 1254–1269.Google Scholar
  127. Naiman, R.J., Pinay, G., Johnston, C.A. and Pastor, J. (1994) Beaver influences on the long-term biogeochemical characteristics of boreal forest drainage networks. Ecology 75, 905–921.Google Scholar
  128. Neff, D.J. (1957) Ecological effects of beaver habitat abandonment in the Colorado Rockies. J. Wildl. Manage. 21, 80–84.Google Scholar
  129. Newton, R.M., Burns, D.A., Blette, V.L. and Driscoll, C.T. (1996) Effect of whole catchment liming on the episodic acidification of two Adirondack streams. Biochem. 32, 299–322.Google Scholar
  130. Nickelson, T.E., Rodgers, J.D., Johnson, S.L. and Solazzi, M.F. (1992a) Seasonal changes in habitat use by juvenile coho salmon (iOncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon coastal streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49, 783–789.Google Scholar
  131. Nickelson, T.E., Solazzi, M.F., Johnson, S.L. and Rodgers, J.D. (1992b) An approach to determining stream carrying capacity and limiting habitat for coho salmon (Oncoryhnchus Kisutch). In: Berg, L. and Delaney, P.W. (eds.), Proceedings of the Coho Workshop. Nanaimo, B.C. May 26- 28, pp. 251–260.Google Scholar
  132. Noel, D.S., Martin, C.W. and Federer, C.A. (1986) Effects of forest clearcutting in New England on stream macrophytes and periphyton. Envir. Manage. 10, 661–670.Google Scholar
  133. Nolet, B.A. (1996) Management of the beaver (Castor fiber): towards restoration of its former distribution and ecological function in Europe? Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 25 October 1996, 29 pp.Google Scholar
  134. Nolet, B.A. and Rosell, F. (1994) Territoriality and time budgets in beavers during sequential settlement. Can. J. Zool. 72, 1227–1237.Google Scholar
  135. Nolet, B.A. and Rosell, F. (1998) Come back of the beaver Castor fiber: an overview of old and new conservation problems. Biol. Conserv. 83, 165–173.Google Scholar
  136. Nolet, B.A., Hoekstra, A. and Ottenheim, M.M. (1994) Selective foraging on woody species by the beaver Castor fiber and its impact on a riparian willow forest. Biol. Conserv. 70, 117–128.Google Scholar
  137. Northcott, T.H. (1971) Feeding habits of beaver in Newfoundland. Oikos 22, 407–410.Google Scholar
  138. Novak, M. (1987) Beaver. In: Novak, M., Baker, J.A., Obbard, M.E. and Malloch, B. (eds.), Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America. Ontario Trappers Association, North Bay, Canada, pp. 283–312.Google Scholar
  139. Nummi, P. (1989) Simulated effects of the beaver on vegetation, invertebrates and ducks. Ann. Zool. Fennici. 26, 43–52.Google Scholar
  140. Nummi, P. (1992) The importance of beaver ponds to waterfowl broods: an experiment and natural tests. Ann. Zool. Fennici. 29, 47–55.Google Scholar
  141. O'Grady, M.F. (1993) Initial observations on the effects of varying levels of deciduous bankside vegetation on salmonid stocks in Irish waters. Aquat. Fish. Manage. 24, 563–573.Google Scholar
  142. Ozolin, J. and Rantin, M. (1992) Some preconditions for the present development of otter Lutra lutra (L), number and distribution in Latvia. Semiaquatische Säugetiere. Wiss., Beitr. Univ. Hale, pp. 365–384.Google Scholar
  143. Packard, F.M. (1960) Beaver killed by coyotes. J. Mammal. 21, 339–360.Google Scholar
  144. Parker, M. (1986) Beaver, water quality and riparian systems. Proceedings: Wyoming water and streamside zone conference. Wyoming Water Research Centre, University of Wyoming, Laramie, pp. 88–94.Google Scholar
  145. Parker, M., Wood, F.J., Smith, B.H. and Elder, R.G. (1985) Erosional downcutting in lower order riparian ecosystems: have historical changes been caused by removal of beaver? In: Johnson et al. (eds.), Tech. Records. Riparian ecosystems and their management: reconciling conflicting uses. 1st N. American Riparian Conf. 1985. April 16- 18, Tuscon AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, Fort Collins, Co: US. Dept. Agr. For. Serv. Rocky Mountain Forest, pp. 35–38.Google Scholar
  146. Patterson, D. (1951) Beaver-trout relationships. Wisc. Conserv. Dep. Invest. Rep. No. 822, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  147. Peterson, S.R. and Low, J.B. (1977) Waterfowl use of Unita Mountain wetlands in Utah. J. Wildl. Manage. 41, 112–117.Google Scholar
  148. Pinkowski, B. (1983) Foraging behaviour of beavers (Castor canadensis) in North Dakota. J. Mamm. 64, 312–314.Google Scholar
  149. Pullen, T.M. (1971) Some effects of beaver (Castor canadensis) and beaver pond management on the ecology and utilization of fish populations along warm - water streams in Georgia and South Carolina. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Georgia. 81 pp.Google Scholar
  150. Rabe, F.W. (1962) The effect of spawning areas on brook trout populations in some Colorado beaver ponds. Proc. Utah. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 39, 195–196.Google Scholar
  151. Rabe, F.W. (1970) Brook trout populations in Colorado beaver ponds. Hydrobiologia. 35, 431–448.Google Scholar
  152. Rasmussen, D.I. (1941) Beaver-trout relationship in the Rocky Mountain region. Trans. N. Amer. Wildl. Conf. 5, 256–263.Google Scholar
  153. Rausch, R.A. and Pearson, A.M. (1972) Notes on the wolverine in Alaska and the Yukon. J. Wildl. Manage. 36, 249.Google Scholar
  154. Reese, K.P. and Hair, J.D. (1976) Avian species diversity in relation to beaver pond habitats in the Piedmont region of South Carolina. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeast Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies 30, 437–447.Google Scholar
  155. Reid, K.A. (1952) Effects of beaver on trout waters. Md. Cons. 29, 21–23.Google Scholar
  156. Reid, D.G., Herero, S.M. and Code, T.E. (1988) River otters as agents of water loss from beaver ponds. J. Mammal. 69, 100–107.Google Scholar
  157. Richard, P.B. (1955) Biè vres constructeurs de barrages. Mammalia 19, 293–301.Google Scholar
  158. Richard, P.B. (1967) Le déterminisme de la construction des barrages chez le Castor du Rhô ne. Terre et la Vie 21, 339–472.Google Scholar
  159. Richard, P.B. (1983) Mechanisms and adaptation in the constructive behaviour of the beaver (C.fiber L.). Acta Zool.Fennica 174, 105–108.Google Scholar
  160. Roblee, K.J. (1984) Use of corrugated plastic drainage tubing for controlling water levels at nuisance beaver sites. N. Y. Fish Game J. 31, 63–80.Google Scholar
  161. Rohde, F.C. and Arndt, R.G. (1991) Distribution and status of the sandhills chub, Semotilus lumbee, and the pinewoods darter, Etheostoma mariae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 107, 61–70.Google Scholar
  162. Rosell, F. and Parker, H. (1995) Forvaltning av bever: dagens tilstand og fremtidig behav. Hogskolen: Telemark, Avdeling for okonomi - , miljo-og idrettsfag, Bø , 137 pp.Google Scholar
  163. Rosell, F., Parker, H. and Kile, N.B. (1996) Causes of mortality in beaver (Castor fiber and canadensis). Fauna 34–46.Google Scholar
  164. Rupp, R.S. (1955) Beaver-trout relationship in the headwaters of Sunkhaze stream, Maine. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 84, 75–85.Google Scholar
  165. Rutherford, W.H. (1955) Wildlife and environmental relationships of beavers in Colorado forests. J. For. 53, 803–806.Google Scholar
  166. Saunders, J.K. (1963) Food habits of the lynx in Newfoundland. J. Wildl. Manage. 27, 384–390.Google Scholar
  167. Schlosser, I.J. (1995) Dispersal, boundary processes and trophic level interactions in streams adjacent to beaver ponds. Ecology 76, 908–925.Google Scholar
  168. Schlosser, I.J. (1998) Fish recruitment, dispersal, and trophic interactions in a heterogeneous lotic environment. Oecologia 113, 260–268.Google Scholar
  169. Schlosser, I.J., Doeringsfeld, M.R., Elder, J.F. and Arzayus, L.F. (1998) Niche relationships of clonal and sexual fish in a heterogeneous landscape. Ecology 79, 953–968.Google Scholar
  170. Schulte, R. and Schneider, E. (1989) Dambuilding of European beavers, Castor fiber L. and its importance for the colonisation of fast running streams in the Eifel Mountains (FGR). Abstracts of the proceedings of the Fifth international theriological congress Rome 22- 29 August. 313 pp.Google Scholar
  171. Scruton, D.A., Anderson, T.C. and King, L.W. (1998) Pamehac Brook: a case study of the restoration of a Newfoundland, Canada, river impacted by flow diversion for pulpwood transportation. Aquatic Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 8, 145–157.Google Scholar
  172. Sedell, J.R., Swanson, F.J. and Gregory, S.V. (1985) Evaluating fish response to woody debris. In: Hassler J.J. (ed.), Pacific Northwest stream habitat management workshop; 1984. October 10- 12. Areata, CA: Humboldt Stoke University, pp. 222–245.Google Scholar
  173. Semyonoff, B.T. (1951) The river beaver in Archangel Province. Trans. Russ. Game Rep. 1, 5–45. Canadian Wildl. Serv. 1957, Ottowa.Google Scholar
  174. Semyonoff, B.T. (1953) Beaver biology in winter in Archangel Province. Trans. Russ. Game Rep. (1957). 1, 71–92.Google Scholar
  175. Seton, E.T. (1929) Lives of Game Animals. Doubleday, Doran & Co., Garden City N.Y., 506 pp.Google Scholar
  176. Shelton, P.C. (1979) Population studies of beavers in Isle Royale National Park. Michigan Trans. Proc. Ser. No. 5, Vol. 1, Sci. Res. Nat. Park. Serv. pp. 335–356.Google Scholar
  177. Shelton, P.C. and Peterson, R.O. (1983) Beaver, wolf and moose interactions in Isle Royale National Park, USA. Acta Zool. Fennica. 174, 265–266.Google Scholar
  178. Shetter, D.S. and Whalls, M.J. (1955) Effect of impoundment on water temperatures of Fuller Creek, Montmorency County, Michigan. J. Wildl. Manage. 19, 47–54.Google Scholar
  179. Shields, F.D., Knight, S.S. and Cooper, C.M. (1998) Additions of spurs to stone toe protection for warmwater fish habitat rehabilitation. J. Am. Water Resources Assocn. 34, 1427–1436.Google Scholar
  180. Sidorovich, V.E., Jedrzejewska, B. and Jedrzejewski, W. (1996) Winter distribution and abundance of mustelids and beavers in the river valleys of Bialowieza Primeval Forest. Acta Theriol. 41, 155–170.Google Scholar
  181. Simonsen, T.A. (1973) Feeding ecology of the beaver (Castor fiber L.) Medd. Statens. Viltunders. 2, 20–61.Google Scholar
  182. Slough, B.G. (1978) Beaver food cache structure and utilisation. J. Wildl. Manage. 42, 644–646.Google Scholar
  183. Smith, M.E., Driscoll, C.T., Wyskowski, B.J., Brooks, C.M. and Consentini, C.C. (1991) Modification of stream ecosystem structure and function by beaver (Castor canadensis) in the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Can. J. Zool. 69, 55–61.Google Scholar
  184. Snodgrass, J.W. and Meffe, G.K. (1998) Influence of beavers on stream fish assemblages: effects of pond age and watershed position. Ecology 79, 928–942.Google Scholar
  185. Snodgrass, J.W. and Meffe, G.K. (1999) Habitat use and temporal dynamics of blackwater stream fishes in and adjacent to beaver ponds. Copeia 3, 628–639.Google Scholar
  186. Songster-Alpin, M.S. and Klotz, R.L. (1995) A comparison of electron transport system activity in stream and beaver pond sediments. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52, 1318–1326.Google Scholar
  187. Sprules, W.M. (1941) The effect of a beaver dam on the insect fauna of a trout stream. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 70, 236–248.Google Scholar
  188. Stack, W.R. and Beschta, R.L. (1989) Factors influencing pool morphology in Oregon coastal streams. Headwaters Hydrology, American Water Resources Association, Hydrol. Symp., Missoula, MT, June 23- 27, pp. 401–411.Google Scholar
  189. Stocker, G. (1985) The beaver (Castor fiber L.) in Switzerland - Biological and ecological problems of re-establishment. Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research Reports. 242, 1–149.Google Scholar
  190. Svendsen, G.E. (1980) Seasonal change in feeding patterns of beaver in southeastern Ohio. J. Wildl. Manage. 44, 285–290.Google Scholar
  191. Swanston, D.N. (1991) Natural processes. In: Meehan, W.R. (ed.), Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 19. Bethesda, Maryland, USA., pp. 139–179.Google Scholar
  192. Tumlison, R., Karnes, M. and King, A.W. (1982) The river otter in Arkansas ll. Indications of a beaver-facilitated commensal relationship. Arkansas Acad. Sci. Proc. 36, 73–75.Google Scholar
  193. Tyurnin, B.N. (1984) Factors determining numbers of river beaver (Castor fiber) in the European North. Soviet Journal of Ecology 14, 337–344.Google Scholar
  194. Vannote, R.L., Minshall, G.W., Cummins, K.W., Sedell, J.R. and Cushing, C.E. (1980) The river continuum concept. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37, 130–137.Google Scholar
  195. Vernon, G. (1992) Biogeographical history of the European beaver, Castor fiber (Rodentia, Mammalia.) Mammalia 56, 87–108.Google Scholar
  196. Vogt, B. (1981) What ails the river otter? National Wildlife 22, 8–15.Google Scholar
  197. Welch, P.S. (1935) Limnology. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, 471 pp.Google Scholar
  198. White, D.S. (1990) Biological relationships to convective flow patterns within stream beds. Hydrobiologia 196, 149–158.Google Scholar
  199. Wilsson, L. (1971) Observations and experiments on the ethology of the European beaver (Castor fiber L.) Viltrevy 8, 113–266.Google Scholar
  200. Wing, L.W. (1951) Practice of wildlife conservation. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 412 pp.Google Scholar
  201. Winkle, P.L., Hubert, W.A. and Rahel, F.J. (1990) Relations between brook trout standing stocks and habitat features in beaver ponds in southeastern Wyoming. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 10, 72–79.Google Scholar
  202. Woo, M.K. and Waddington, J.M. (1990) Effects of beaver dams on subarctic wetland hydrology. Arctic 43, 223–230.Google Scholar
  203. Woodard, E.L. (1994) Behaviour, activity patterns and foraging strategies of beaver (Castor canadensis) on Sagehen Creek, California. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of California.Google Scholar
  204. Wright, S. (1944). Increasing the production of food for fish. Trans. Ninth N. Am. Wildlife Conf., pp. 190–196.Google Scholar
  205. Yeager, L.E. and Hill, R.R. (1954) Beaver management problems in western public lands. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 19, 462–479.Google Scholar
  206. Young, M.K. (1995) Telemetry - determined diurnal positions of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two south-central Wyoming streams. Am. Midl. Nat. 133, 264–273.Google Scholar
  207. Zharkov, I.V. and Rodikov, V.P. (1975) Interrelationships of the beaver and otter in some biocenoses of the Pripyat Forest. In: Transactions of the Voronezh StatePreserve 21, 97–104.Google Scholar
  208. Zharkov, I.V. and Sokolov, V.E. (1967) The European beaver (Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758) in the Soviet Union. Acta Theriol. 12, 27–46.Google Scholar
  209. Zurowski, W. (1989) Dam building activity of beavers on the mountainous streams. Abstracts: Fifth Int. Theriol. Congr. Rome 1, 316–317.Google Scholar
  210. Zurowski, W. (1992) Building activity of beavers. Acta Theriol. 37, 403–411.Google Scholar
  211. Zurowski, W. and Kasperczyk, B. (1986) Characteristics of a European beaver population in the Suwalki Lakeland. ActaTheriol. 31, 311–325.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Collen
    • 1
  • R.J. Gibson
    • 2
  1. 1.Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory, Faskally, PitlochryPerthshireScotland
  2. 2.Science BranchDepartment of Fisheries and OceansSt. John'sCanada

Personalised recommendations