, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 195–202 | Cite as

Definitions of Dream: A Paradigm for Comparing Field Descriptive Specific Studies of Dream

  • J.F. Pagel
  • M. Blagrove
  • R. Levin
  • B. States
  • B. Stickgold
  • S. White


A single definition for dreaming is most likely impossible given the wide spectrum of fields engaged in the study of dreaming, and the diversity in currently applied definitions. Many studies do not specify a definition, yet results are likely to be comparable only when comparable definitions of the topic are used. The alternative is to develop a classification system organizing the multiplicity of definitions for dream. A dream should not be exclusively defined as a non-conscious electrophysiologic state. Dreaming is, at least in part, a mental experience that can be described during waking consciousness. Definitions for dreaming should be utilized in research and discussion which address the various axes which define dreaming: Wake/sleep, Recall, and Content.

dream definition sleep recall content 


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Copyright information

© Association for the Study of Dreams 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.F. Pagel
    • 1
  • M. Blagrove
    • 2
  • R. Levin
    • 3
  • B. States
    • 4
  • B. Stickgold
    • 5
  • S. White
    • 6
  1. 1.University of Colorado Medical SchoolUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wales SwanseaBritain
  3. 3.Ferkauf Graduate School of PsychologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineUSA
  4. 4.University of California-Santa BarbaraUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical SchoolUSA
  6. 6.New York

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