Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 29, Issue 6, pp 573–583 | Cite as

Is Expressed Emotion a Specific Risk Factor for Depression or a Nonspecific Correlate of Psychopathology?

  • Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow
  • Martha Tompson
  • Stephanie Woo
  • Dennis P. Cantwell

Abstract

Five Minute Speech Sample Expressed Emotion (FMSS-EE) was examined in families of youth with depressive disorders, nondepressed youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and community controls screened for the absence of depression and ADHD. Consistent with the hypothesis that FMSS-EE shows some specificity as a risk factor for depression, rates of critical EE were significantly higher among mothers of youth with depression as compared to mothers of nondepressed youth with ADHD, or mothers of controls. When both mothers' and fathers' scores were used to generate family EE ratings, rates of overall EE and critical EE were significantly higher for the depressed group than the control group, but the nondepressed ADHD group did not differ significantly from the other groups. Results support the hypothesis that critical EE in mothers shows some specificity as a risk factor or correlate of depression in youth.

depression expressed emotion family attention deficit disorder 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III-R (3rd ed. rev.).Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Asarnow, J. R., & Ben-Meir, S. (1988). Children with schizophrenia spectrum and depressive disorders: A comparative study of premorbid adjustment, onset pattern, and severity of impairment. Journal of Child Psychology, Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 29, 477–488.Google Scholar
  5. Asarnow, J. R., Goldstein, M. J., Tompson, M., & Guthrie, D. (1993). One-year outcomes of depressive disorders in child psychiatric inpatients: Evaluation of the prognostic power of a brief measure of expressed emotion. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 129–137.Google Scholar
  6. Asarnow, J. R., Tompson, M., Hamilton, E. B., Goldstein, M. J., & Guthrie, D. (1994). Family expressed emotion, childhood-onset depression, and childhood-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Is expressed emotion a nonspecific correlate of child psychopathology or a specific risk factor for depression? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 129–146.Google Scholar
  7. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Kolko, D., Baugher, M., Bridge, J., Holder, D., Iyengar, S., & Uloa, R. E. (2000). Clinical outcome after short-term psychotherapy for adolescents with major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 29–36.Google Scholar
  8. Butzlaff, R. L., & Hooley, J. M. (1998). Expressed emotion and psychiatric relapse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 547–552.Google Scholar
  9. Emslie, G. J., Rush, A. J., Weinberg, W. A., Kowatch, R. A., Carmody, T., & Mayes, T. L. (1998). Fluoxetine in child and adolescent depression: Acute and maintenance treatment. Depression and Anxiety, 7, 32–39.Google Scholar
  10. Hamilton, E. B., Asarnow, J. R., & Tompson, M. (1997). Social, academic and behavioral competence of depressed children: Relationships to diagnostic status and family interaction style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 77–87.Google Scholar
  11. Hibbs, E. D., Hamburger, S. D., Kruesi, M. J., & Lenane, M. (1993). Factors affecting expressed emotion in parents of ill and normal children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 103–112.Google Scholar
  12. Hibbs, E. D., Hamburger, S. D., Lenane, M., Rapoport, J. L., Kruesi, M. J. P., Keysor, C. S., & Goldstein, M. J. (1991). Determinants of expressed emotion in families of disturbed and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 757–770.Google Scholar
  13. Hirshfeld, D. R., Biederman, J., Brody, L., Faraone, S. V., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1997). Associations between expressed emotion and child behavioral inhibition and psychopathology: A pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 205–213.Google Scholar
  14. Hooley, J. M. (1987). The nature and origins of expressed emotion. In K. Hahlweg & M. J. Goldstein (Eds.), Understanding major mental disorder: The contribution of family interaction research. New York: Family Process Press.Google Scholar
  15. Kendler, K. S., & Prescott, C. A. (1999). A population-based twin study of lifetime major depression in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 39–44.Google Scholar
  16. Kershner, J. G., Cohen, N. J., & Coyne, J. C. (1996). Expressed emotion in families of clinically referred and nonreferred children: Toward a further understanding of the expressed emotion index. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 97–106.Google Scholar
  17. Leeb, B., Hahlweg, K., Goldstein, M. J., Feinstein, E., Mueller, U., Dose, M., & Magana-Amato, A. (1991). Cross-national reliability, concurrent validity, and stability of a brief method for assessing expressed emotion. Psychiatry Research, 39, 25–31.Google Scholar
  18. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 133–144.Google Scholar
  19. Magana, A. A., Goldstein, M. J., Karno, M., Miklowitz, D. J., Jenkins, J., & Falloon, I. (1986). A brief method for assessing expressed emotion in relatives of psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Research, 17, 203–212.Google Scholar
  20. Marshall, V. G., Longwell, L., Goldstein, M. J., & Swanson, J. M. (1990). Family factors associated with aggressive symptomatology in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 629–636.Google Scholar
  21. McCauley, E., Myers, K., Mitchell, J., Calderon, P., Schloredt, K., & Treder, R. (1993). Depression in young people: Initial presentation and clinical course. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 714–722.Google Scholar
  22. Newcorn, J. H., & Halperin, J. M. (1994). Comorbidity among disruptive behavior disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3, 227–252.Google Scholar
  23. Orvaschel, H., & Puig-Antich, K. (1987). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Epidemiological Version. Philadelphia: Medical College of Pennsylvania, Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Peris, T. S., & Baker, B. L. (2000). Applications of the expressed emotion construct to young children with externalizing behavior: Stability and prediction over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(4), 457–462.Google Scholar
  25. Schwartz, C. E., Dorer, D. J., Beardslee, W. R., Lavori, P. W., & Keller, M. B. (1990). Maternal expressed emotion and parental affective disorder: Risk for childhood depressive disorder, substance abuse, or conduct disorder. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 24, 231–250.Google Scholar
  26. Silberg, J., Pickles, A., Rutter, M., Hewitt, J., Simonoff, E., Maes, H., Carbonneau, R., Murrelle, L., Foley, D., & Eaves, L. (1999). The influence of genetic factors on depression among adolescent girls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 225–232.Google Scholar
  27. Stubbe, D. E., Zahner, G. E., Goldstein, M. J., & Leckman, J. F. (1993). Diagnostic specificity of a brief measure of expressed emotion: A community study of children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 34, 139–154.Google Scholar
  28. Valleni-Basile, L. A., Garrison, C. Z., Jackson, K. L., Waller, J. L., McKeown, R. E., Addy, C. L., & Cuffe, S. P. (1994). Frequency of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a community sample of young adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 782–791.Google Scholar
  29. Vostanis, P., & Nicholls, J. (1995). Nine-month changes of maternal expressed emotion in conduct and emotional disorders of childhood: A follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36, 833–846.Google Scholar
  30. Vostanis, P., Nicholls, J., & Harrington, R. (1994). Maternal expressed emotion in conduct and emotional disorders of childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 365–376.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan Rosenbaum Asarnow
    • 1
  • Martha Tompson
    • 2
  • Stephanie Woo
    • 3
  • Dennis P. Cantwell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CaliforniaLos Angeles
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyBoston University
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyPepperdine UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations