Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 171–184 | Cite as

The contribution of agroforestry systems to reducing farmers' dependence on the resources of adjacent national parks: a case study from Sumatra, Indonesia

  • Murniati
  • D. P. Garrity
  • A. Ng. Gintings


There is much debate about the way conservation and development are best integrated to reduce the encroachment pressures of poor rural communities on the biodiversity resources of protected areas in the tropics. One frequently recommended instrument is to intensify farming systems in the adjacent areas, so as to decrease the need to harvest resources from national parks. This study examined this issue by analyzing the effects of different household land uses in villages near a national park on their propensity to harvest resources from the park. In the northern part of the Kerinci Seblat National Park (Sumatra Island, Indonesia) the park buffer zone is comprised largely of community or village forests and human settlements. The village forests were formerly managed as production forests and provided significant cash income to the village. They were converted into farmland, particularly to mixed-tree gardens or agroforests. Natural forest coverage has now declined to 10% of the former area within village forest land. We analyzed the characteristics of the mixed gardens and village forests, and their practical contribution to reducing farmers' dependence on the adjacent national park resources. Households with farms that were more diversified were found to have much less dependency on the national park resources. Households that farmed only wetland rice fields registered the highest value of forest products obtained from inside the park. Households that farmed only mixed gardens had an intermediate level of park resource extraction, while those that had farms composed of both components (i.e. wetland rice fields and mixed gardens) had a dramatically lower level of economic dependency on park resources than households in either of the other two categories.

buffer zones community forest conservation mixed gardens rubber 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alikodra HS and Soekmadi R (1991) Konsep Perencanaan dan Pengembangan Daerah Penyangga Taman Nasional (Planning and development concept of national park buffer zone). In: Wind J (ed) Proceedings of the Symposium on 'Rain Forest Protection and National Park Buffer Zones' (Supporting papers), pp 9-22. National Parks Development Project, Buffer Zone and Research ManagementGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen LH, Sinclair TR and Lemon ER (1976) Radiation and microclimate relationships in multiple cropping systems. In: Multiple Cropping, Am Soc Agronomy Special Publication No. 27Google Scholar
  3. Chambers R (1983) Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Longmans, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. De Foresta H and Michon G (1997) The agroforest alternative to Imperata grasslands: when smallholder agriculture and forestry reach sustainability. In: Garrity DP (ed) Agroforestry Innovations to Rehabilitate Imperata Grasslands, Agroforestry Systems Special Issue 36, pp 105-120Google Scholar
  5. De Foresta H and Michon G (1994) Agroforests in Sumatra where ecology meets economy. Agroforestry Today 6(4): 12-13Google Scholar
  6. Doerachman A (1957) Peraturan bunga kayu di Sumatra Barat (Solokregeling) (Timber tax regulation in West Sumatra). Archipel Publisher, Bogor. Rimba Indonesia 3-4-5(VI): 177-206Google Scholar
  7. Garrity DP (1995) Buffer Zone Management and Agroforestry: Some lessons from a global perspective. Paper presented in National Workshop of Buffer Zone Management and Agroforestry, Central Mindanao University, Museum, Bukidnon, August 8-11, 11 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Garrity DP et al. (1996) Buffer zone management and agroforestry. Summary report of a national workshop. International Centre for Research in AgroforestryGoogle Scholar
  9. Garrity DP (1997) Addressing Natural resources Management Challenges in the Humid Tropics Through Agroforestry Research. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Bogor, Indonesia, 28 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Garrity DP, Amoroso VB, Koffa S and Catacutan D (2000) Innovations in participatory watershed resourse management to conserve tropical biodiversity. In: Coxhead I and Buenavista G (eds) Challenges of Natural Resource Management in a Rapidly Developing Economy: A Philippine Case Study. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development, Los Banos, Philippines (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Gerholm T (1977) Market, Mosque and Mafraj. Social Inequality in a Yemeni Town. Stockhom University: Stockhom Studies in Social Anthropology 5Google Scholar
  12. Grandin B (1983) The importance of wealth effects on pastoral production: a rapid method of wealth ranking. In: Pastoral Systems Research in Sub-Saharan Africa, pp 237-254. Proceedings of the Workshop at the International Livestock Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, August, 1983Google Scholar
  13. Grandin B (1987) Wealth Ranking in Smallholder Communities: A Field Manual. Intermediate Technology Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Hannerz U (1976) Methods in an African urban study. Ethnos 41: 68-98Google Scholar
  15. ICRAF (1995) Annual report for 1994. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry. Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  16. Mackinnon J, MacKinnon K, Child, G and Thorsell J (1986) Managing Protected Areas in the Tropics. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  17. McCracken JA, Pretty J and Conway GR (1988) An Introduction to Rapid Rural Appraisal for Agricultural Development. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Michon G, Mary F and Bompard J (1986) Multistoried agroforestry garden system in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems 4(4): 315-338. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk publishers in cooperation with ICRAF. Dordrecht, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ostberg W (1995) Land is Coming Up. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology. Stockholm University, 258 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Penot E. (1995) Taking the 'Jungle' out of the rubber, Improving rubber in Indonesian Agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Today 7(3-4): 11-13Google Scholar
  21. Regional Office National Land Agency, West Sumatra Province (1992). Field Survey Note Blad No. 19 BE-C (14 pp), 19 BE-G (14 pp) and 19 BE-H (26 pp)Google Scholar
  22. Schmidt FH and Ferguson JHA (1951) Rainfall Types Based on Wet and Dry Period Ratios for Indonesia with Western New Guinea. Kementrian Perhubungan, Djawatan Meteorologi dan Geofisika, Djakarta (Ministry of Transportation, Directorate General of meteorology and Geophysics. Jakarta), 77 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Silverman S (1966) An ethnographic approach to social stratification: Prestige in a central Italian community. American Anthropologist 68: 898-921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sungai Kalu I Village Monograph (1993) Sungai Kalu I Village, W. Sumatra (unpublished), 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Sungai Kalu II Village Monograph II. (1993) Sungai Kalu II Village, W. Sumatra (unpublished), 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Tim Penelitian Daerah Penyangga Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat (Research Team of Kerinci Seblat National Park Buffer Zone) (1992) Penelitian Daerah Penyangga Taman Nasional Kerinci Seblat (Research of Kerinci Seblat National Park Buffer Zone). Badan Litbang Kehutanan dan Ditjen PHPA. (Forestry Research and Development Agency and Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation), 191 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Wells M and Brandon K (1992) People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. World Wide Fund for Nature (1992) Background report No. 15 Analysis of Ecosystem of Kerinci Seblat National Park Boundary zone. Integrated Conservation Development Project (ICDP) Kerinci Seblat National Park, Biodiversity Conservation in Indonesia. INS/92/641, 114 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Murniati
    • 1
  • D. P. Garrity
    • 2
  • A. Ng. Gintings
    • 3
  1. 1.Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development CentreBogorIndonesia
  2. 2.International Centre for Research in AgroforestryBogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Forest Products and Forestry Socio Economic Research and Development CentreBogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations