Plant and Soil

, Volume 235, Issue 2, pp 235–242 | Cite as

Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on microelement concentrations and increased growth of cucumber plants

  • Iris Yedidia
  • Alok K Srivastva
  • Yoram Kapulnik
  • Ilan Chet

Abstract

The potential of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum strain T-203 to induce a growth response in cucumber plants was studied in soil and under axenic hydroponic growth conditions. When soil was amended with T. harzianum propagules, a 30% increase in seedling emergence was observed up to 8 days after sowing. On day 28, these plants exhibited a 95 and 75% increase in root area and cumulative root length, respectively, and a significant increase in dry weight (80%), shoot length (45%) and leaf area (80%). Similarly, an increase of 90 and 30% in P and Fe concentration respectively, was observed in T. harzianum inoculated plants. To better characterize the effect of T. harzianum during the early stages of root colonization, experiments were carried out in a gnotobiotic hydroponic system. An increased growth response was apparent as early as 5 days post-inoculation with T. harzianum, resulting in an increase of 25 and 40% in the dry weight of roots and shoots, respectively. Similarly a significant increase in the concentration of Cu, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Na was observed in inoculated roots. In the shoots of these plants, the concentration of Zn, P and Mn increased by 25, 30 and 70%, respectively. Using the axenic hydroponic system, we showed that the improvement of plant nutritional level may be directly related to a general beneficial growth effect of the root system following T. harzianum inoculation. This phenomenon was evident from 5 days post-inoculation throughout the rest of the growth period, resulting in biomass accumulation in both roots and shoots.

Cucumber hydroponic system increased growth response mineral uptake T. harzianum 

References

  1. Altomare C, Norvell W A, Bjorkman T and Harman G E 1999 Solubilization of phosphate and micronutrients by the plant-growthpromoting and biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai 1295-22. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 2926–2933.Google Scholar
  2. Anusuya D and Jayarajan R 1998. Curr. Sci. 74, 464–466.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey B A and Lumsden R D 1998 Direct effects of Trichoderma and Gliocladium on plant growth and resistance to pathogens. In Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Vol. II. Eds. G E Harman and C P Kubicek. pp 185–204. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  4. Baker R 1989 Improved Trichoderma spp. for promoting crop productivity. Trends Biotechnol. 7, 34–38.Google Scholar
  5. Beyrle, H 1995 The role of phytohormones in the function and biology of mycorrhizas. In Mycorrhiza. Eds. A Varma and B Hock. pp 365–390. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  6. Chang Y C, Chang Y C, Baker R, Kleifeld O and Chet I 1986 Increased growth of plants in the presence of the biological control agent Trichoderma harzianum. Plant Dis. 70, 145–148.Google Scholar
  7. Chet I 1987 Trichoderma-application, mode of action, and potential as biocontrol agent of soilborne plant pathogenic fungi. In Innovative Approaches to Plant Disease Control. Ed. I Chet. pp 137–160. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Chet I, Inbar J and Hadar Y 1997 Fungal antagonists and mycoparasites. In Mycota Environmental and Microbial Relationships. Vol. IV. Ed. S Wicklow. pp 165–184. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  9. de Meyer G, Bigirimana J, Elad Y and Höfte M 1998 Induced systemic resistance in Trichoderma harzianum T39 biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 104, 279–286.Google Scholar
  10. Elad Y and Chet I 1983 Improved selective media for isolation of Trichoderma or Fusarium spp. Phytoparasitica 11, 55–58.Google Scholar
  11. Fisher R A 1958 Statistical methods for research workers. 13th ed. Hafner, New York. 356 p.Google Scholar
  12. Harman G E 2000 Myth and dogmas of biocontrol changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Dis. 84, 377–393.Google Scholar
  13. Harman G E and Bjorkman T 1998 Potential and existing uses of Trichoderma and Gliocladium for plant disease control and plant growth enhancement. In Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Vol. II. Eds. G E Harman and C P Kubicek. pp 229–265. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  14. Harman G E and Lumsden R D 1990 Biological disease control. In The Rhizosphere. Ed. J M Lynch. pp 259–280. Wiley Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Howell C R, Hanson L E, Stipanovic R D and Puckhaber L S 2000 Induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots and control of Rhizoctonia solani by seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 90, 248–252.Google Scholar
  16. Inbar J, Abramsky M and Chet I 1994 Plant growth enhancement and disease control by Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable seedlings under commercial conditions. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 100, 337–346.Google Scholar
  17. Johansen A 1999 Depletion of soil mineral N by roots of Cucumis sativus L. colonized or not by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 209, 119–127.Google Scholar
  18. Kim K Y, Jordan D and McDonald G A 1998 Effect of phosphatesolubilizing bacteria and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on tomato growth and soil microbial activity. Biol. Fertil. Soils 26, 79–87.Google Scholar
  19. Kleifeld O 1990 Increased Growth Response of Plants and Interaction Between the Fungus Trichoderma spp. and Plants. Ph.D. Thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem. 98 p. (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  20. Kleifeld O and Chet I 1992 Trichoderma - plant interaction and its effect on increased growth response. Plant Soil 144, 267–272.Google Scholar
  21. Okon Y, Chet I and Henis Y 1973 Effect of lactose, ethanol and cycloheximide on the translation pattern of radioactive compounds and on Sclerotium rolfsii. Gen. Microbiol. 74, 251–258.Google Scholar
  22. Ousley M A, Lynch J M and Whipps J M 1994 Potential of Trichoderma as consistent plant growth stimulators. Biol. Fertil. Soils 17, 85–90.Google Scholar
  23. Shenker M, Oliver I, Helmann M, Hadar Y and Chen Y 1992 Utilization by tomatoes of iron mediated by a siderophore produced by Rhizopus arrhizus. J. Plant Nutr. 15, 2173–2182.Google Scholar
  24. Smith S E and Read D J 1997 Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 2nd ed. AP, San Diego, CA. 605 p.Google Scholar
  25. Windham M T, Elad Y and Baker R 1986 A mechanism for increased plant growth induced by Trichoderma spp. Phytopathology 76, 518–521.Google Scholar
  26. Yedidia I, Benhamou N and Chet I 1999 Induction of defense response in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) by the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 1061–1070.Google Scholar
  27. Yedidia I, Benhamou N, Kapulnik Y and Chet I 2000 Induction and accumulation of PR proteins activity during early stages of root colonization by the mycoparasite Trichoderma harzianum strain T-203. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 38, 863–873.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iris Yedidia
    • 1
  • Alok K Srivastva
    • 1
  • Yoram Kapulnik
    • 2
  • Ilan Chet
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality SciencesThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and Natural Resources, Agricultural Research OrganizationThe Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael

Personalised recommendations