A Comparison of the 1988 and 1994 Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

  • Leonard A. Jason
  • Susan R. Torres-Harding
  • Renee R. Taylor
  • Adam W. Carrico
Article

Abstract

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is an illness that involves severe, prolonged fatigue as well as neurological, immunological, and endocrinological system pathology. Because the pathogenesis of CFS has yet to be determined, case definitions have relied on clinical observation in classifying signs and symptoms for diagnosis. In an attempt to address various criticisms and inconsistencies in diagnostic criteria, there have been several revisions of the CFS case definition. The current investigation examined the differences between 1988 and 1994 definitions as well as participants who had a psychiatric explanation for their fatigue. Dependent measures included psychiatric comorbidity, symptom frequency, and functional impairment. The 1988 criteria, compared to the 1994 criteria, appeared to select a group of participants with more symptomatology and functional impairment, but these groups did not significantly differ in psychiatric comorbidity. Implications of these findings are discussed.

chronic fatigue syndrome diagnostic criteria symptoms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Bates, D. W., Buchwald, D., Lee, J., Kornish, J., Doolittle, T., & Komaroff, A. L. (1992). A comparison of case definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome [Abstract]. Clinical Research, 40, 234A.Google Scholar
  3. Brazier, J. E., Harper, R., Jones, N. M. B., O'Cathain, A., Thomas, K. J., Usherwood, T., & Westlake, L. (1992). Validating the SF–36 Health Survey Questionnaire. Quality of Life Research, 2, 169–180.Google Scholar
  4. Friedberg, F. & Jason, L. A. (1998). Understanding chronic fatigue syndrome: An guide to assessment and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Fukuda, K., Straus, S. E., Hickie, I., Sharpe, M. C., Dobbins, J.G., & Komaroff, A. (1994). The chronic fatigue syndrome: A comprehensive approach to its definition and study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 121, 953–959.Google Scholar
  6. Holmes, G. P. (1991). Defining chronic fatigue syndrome. Reviews of Infectious Disease, 13, S53–S55.Google Scholar
  7. Holmes, G. P., Kaplan, J. E., Gantz, N. M., Komaroff, A. L., Schonberger, L. B., Strauss, S. S., Jones, J. F., Dubois, R. E., Cunningham–Rudles, C., Pahwa, S., Tosato, G., Zegans, L. S., Purtilo, D. T., Brown, W., Schooley, R. T., & Brus, I. (1988). Chronic fatigue syndrome: A working case definition. Annals of Internal Medicine, 108, 387–389.Google Scholar
  8. Holmes, G. P., Kaplan, J. E., Schonberger, L. B., Straus, S. E., Komaroff, H., Jones, J. F., DuBois, R. E., Cunningham–Rundles, C., Tosato, G., Brown, N. A., Pahwa, S., & Schooley, R. T. (1988). Definition of chronic fatigue syndrome [letter to the editor]. Annals of Internal Medicine, 109, 512.Google Scholar
  9. Jason, L. A., King, C. P., Richman, J. A., Taylor, R. R., Torres, S. R., & Song, S. (1999). US case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome: Diagnostic and theoretical issues. The Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 5(3/4), 3–33.Google Scholar
  10. Jason, L. A., Richman, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Jordan, K. M., Plioplys, A. V., Taylor, R., McCready, W., Huang, C., & Plioplys, S. (1999). A community–based study of chronic fatigue syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 2129–2137.Google Scholar
  11. Jason, L. A., Ropacki, M. T., Santoro, N. B., Richman, J. A., Heatherly, W., Taylor, R., Ferrari, J. R., Haney–Davis, T. M., Rademaker, A., Dupuis, J., Golding, J., Plioplys, A.V., Plioplys, S. (1997). A screening instrument for chronic fatigue syndrome: Reliability and validity. Journal of ChronicFatigue Syndrome, 3, 39–59.Google Scholar
  12. Jason, L. A., Wagner, L., Taylor, R., Ropacki, M. T., Shlaes, J., Ferrari, J. R., Slavich, S. P., Stenzel, C. (1995). Chronic fatigue syndrome: A new challenge for health care professionals. The Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 143–164.Google Scholar
  13. Katon, W. J., Buchwald, D. S., Simon, G. E., Russo, J. E., & Mease, P. J. (1991). Psychiatric illness in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 6, 277–285.Google Scholar
  14. Katon, W. & Russo, J. (1992). Chronic fatigue syndrome criteria.A critique of the requirement for multiple physical complaints. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152, 1604–1609.Google Scholar
  15. Matthews, D. A., Lane, T. J., & Manu, P. (1988). Definition of chronic fatigue syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 109(6), 511–512.Google Scholar
  16. McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., Lu., R. L., & Sherbourne, D. (1994). The MOS 36–item Short–Form Health Survey (SF–36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Medical Care, 32(1), 40–66.Google Scholar
  17. McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., & Raczek, A. E. (1993). The MOS 36–item Short–Form Health Survey (SF–36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Medical Care, 31(3), 247–263.Google Scholar
  18. McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., Rogers, W., Raczek, A. E., & Lu, J. F. (1992). The validity and relative percision of MOS short–and long–form health status scales and Dartmouth COOP charts. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Medical Care, 30(Suppl.), MS253–MS265.Google Scholar
  19. Rubinson, E. P., & Asnis, G. M. (1989). Use of structured interviews for diagnosis. In S. Wetzler (Ed.), Measuring mental illness: Psychometric assessment for clinicians (pp. 45–66). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  20. Schluederberg, R. B., Straus, S. E., Peterson, P., Blumenthal, S., Komaroff, A. L., Spring, S. B., Landay, A., & Buchwald, D. (1992). Chronic fatigue syndrome research: Definition and medical outcome assessment. Annals of Internal Medicine, 117, 325–331.Google Scholar
  21. Spitzer, R., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1975). Clinical criteria for psychiatric diagnosis and DSM–III. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1187–1192.Google Scholar
  22. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., First, M. B. (1995). Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM–IV: Non–patient edition (SCID–NP, Version 2.0). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  23. Straus, S. (1992). Defining chronic fatigue syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152, 1559–1570.Google Scholar
  24. Tiersky, L. A., Weisberg, S., Zhang, Q.W., DeLuca, J. Rappolt, G., & Natelson, B. H. (2000). Symptom frequency and severity in chronic fatigue syndrome. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  25. Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S.D. (1994). SF–36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales: A user's manual. Boston, MA: Health Assessment Lab, New England Medical Center.Google Scholar
  26. Ware, J. E. & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36–item Short–Form Health Survey: Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30 (6), 473–483.Google Scholar
  27. Ware, J. E., Snow, K. K., Kosinski, M., & Gandek B. (2000). SF–36 Health Survey: Manual and interpretation guide. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric Incorporated.Google Scholar
  28. Wessely, S., Chalder, T., Hirsch, S., Wallace, P., Wright, D. (1997). Prevalence and morbidity of chronic fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: A prospective primary care study. American Journal of Public Health, 87 (9), 1449–1455.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard A. Jason
    • 1
  • Susan R. Torres-Harding
    • 1
  • Renee R. Taylor
    • 1
  • Adam W. Carrico
    • 1
  1. 1.DePaul UniversityChicago

Personalised recommendations