Advertisement

Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 271–284 | Cite as

Local autonomy and sustainable development: Testing import substitution in more localized food systems

  • Anne C. Bellows
  • Michael W. Hamm
Article

Abstract

Community initiatives to create more localized food systems ofteninclude the strategy of import substitution, i.e., increasing local foodproduction for local consumption. The purpose of this policy iseffectively to supplant some level of imported food into the region. Weargue that such action can carry social and environmental risks as wellas benefits and we have developed research parameters to measure theimpact of such strategies. Harriet Friedmann's seminal work (1991) onthe employment of import substitution by transnational corporationsprovides a framework to identify possible advantages and disadvantagesof the same approach locally. We propose local autonomy and sustainabledevelopment as positive indicators of a more localized food system.Three units of analysis are proposed to measure changes in localautonomy and sustainable development as a result of import substitutionschemes: fair labor trade, equity and democracy, and environmentalstewardship. We propose that this flexible framework of analysisincreases our ability to describe the shifting and integrated balancebetween more local and more global food systems.

Food systems Import substitution Research methods 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahams, P.W. and I. Thornton (1994). “The contamination of agricultural land in the metalliferous province of southwest England: implications to livestock.” Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 48: 125-137.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, P. (ed.) (1993). Food for the Future: Conditions and Contradictions of Sustainability. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, P. (1999). “Reweaving the food security safety net: Mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship.” Agriculture and Human Values 16(2): 117-129.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, P. and C. Sachs (1993). “Sustainable agriculture in the United States: Engagements, silences, and possibilities for transformation.” In P. Allen (ed.), Food for the Future: Conditions and Contradictions of Sustainability (pp. 139-167). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  5. Altieri, M. A. (1993). “Ethnoscience and biodiversity: Key elements in the design of sustainable pest management systems for small farmers in developing countries.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 46: 257-272.Google Scholar
  6. Barndt, D. (ed.) (1999a). Women Working the NAFTA Food Chain: Women, Food and Globalization. Toronto: Second Story Press.Google Scholar
  7. Barndt, D. (1999b). “Women workers in the NAFTA food chain.” In M. Koc, R. MacRae, L. J.A. Mougeot, and J. Welsh (eds.), For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 162-166). Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  8. Bellows, A. C. (1996). “Where kitchen and laboratory meet: The 'Tested Food for Silesia' program.” In D. Rocheleau, B. Thomas-Slater, and E. Wangari (eds.), Feminist Political Ecology: Global Perspectives and Local Insights (pp. 251-270). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bellows, A. C. (1999). “Urban food, health, and the environment: The case of Upper Silesia, Poland.” In M. Koc, R. MacRae, Luc L. J. A. Mougeot, and J. Welsh (eds.), For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 131-135).Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  10. Bellows, A. C. (2001). “The praxis of food security.” In M. DeKoven (ed.), Feminist Locations: Global/Local/Theory/ Practice in the Twenty-First Century. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, M. B. (1993). Fair Trade: Reform and Realities in the International Trading System. London/New Jersey: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  12. Busch, L. (1994). “The state of agricultural science and the agricultural science of the state.” In A. Bonanno, L. Busch, W. Friedland, L. Gouveia, and E. Mingione (eds.), From Columbus to ConAgra: The Globalization of Agriculture and Food (pp. 69-84). Lawrence: The University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chokor, B. A. and F. O. Odemerho (1994). “Land degradation assessment by small-scale traditional African farmers and implications for sustainable conservation management.” Geoforum 25(2): 145-154.Google Scholar
  14. Cleaver, F. (1998). “Choice, complexity, and change: Gendered livelihoods and the management of water.” Agriculture and Human Values 15(4): 293-299.Google Scholar
  15. Coleman, E. (1998). The Winter Harvest Manual: Farming the Back Side of the Calendar. Self-published.Google Scholar
  16. Dahlberg, K. A. (1992). “The conservation of biological diversity and U.S. agriculture: goals, institutions, and policies.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 42: 177-193.Google Scholar
  17. DeFilippis, J. (1999). “Alternatives to the 'New Urban Politics': Finding locality and autonomy in local economic development.” Political Geography 18: 973-990.Google Scholar
  18. Dinham, B. (1996). “Introduction-food security for the 21st century.” In The Pesticides Trust (ed./publ.), Growing Food Security: Challenging the Link between Pesticides and Access to Food. San Francisco: The Pesticides Trust/PAN.Google Scholar
  19. Engel-Di Mauro, S. (1998). “Farming under a regime of harder work: Ecological maintenance and degradation in the Ormanysag, South West Hungary.” Middle States Geographer 31: 45-53.Google Scholar
  20. Engel-Di Mauro, S. (2000). Soil Use, Soil Science, and Gender Relations. Dissertation, Department of Geography. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.Google Scholar
  21. Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Feldman, S. and R.Welsh (1995). “Feminist knowledge claims, local knowledge, and gender divisions of agricultural labor: Constructing a successor science.” Rural Sociology 60(1): 23-43.Google Scholar
  23. Friedland, W. H. (1991). “Women and agriculture in the United States: A state of the art assessment.” In W. H. Friedland, L. Busch, F. H. Buttel, and A. P. Rudy (eds.), Towards a New Political Economy of Agriculture (pp. 315-338). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  24. Friedmann, H. (1991). “Changes in the international division of labor: Agri-food complexes and export agriculture.” In W. H. Friedland, L. Busch, F. H. Buttel, and A. P. Rudy (eds.), Towards a New Political Economy of Agriculture (pp. 65-93). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gilbert, M. (forthcoming). “From the 'Walk for Adequate Welfare' to the 'March for Our Lives':Welfare rights organizing in the 1960s and 1990s.” Urban Geography.Google Scholar
  26. Gilpin, M., G. A. E. Gall, and D. S. Woodruff (1992). “Ecological dynamics and agricultural landscapes.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 42: 27-52.Google Scholar
  27. Goodman, D. and M. Redclift (1991). Refashioning Nature: Food, Ecology, and Culture. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Gottlieb, R. and A. Fisher (1996). “Community food security and environmental justice: searching for a common discourse.” Agriculture and Human Values 13(3): 23-32.Google Scholar
  29. Guinier, L. (1994). The Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fairness in Representative Democracy. New York: Free Press; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada. Gussow, J. (1985). “PCBs for breakfast and other problems with a food system gone awry.” Food Monitor 2(3).Google Scholar
  30. Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, Nature, and the Geography of Difference. Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  31. Hubbell, B. J. and R. Welsh (1998). “Transgenic crops: engineering a more sustainable agriculture?” Agriculture and Human Values 15(1): 43-56.Google Scholar
  32. Joseph, H. (1999). “Re-defining community food security.” Community Food Security News (Summer): 3+.Google Scholar
  33. Kacprzak, H., J. Sokolowska, M. Staniszewska, J. Sliwka, and B. Migurska (1996). Tested and Organic Food for Residents of Densely Industrialized Urban Areas, Report. Gliwice, Poland: Gliwice Chapter, Polish Ecological Club.Google Scholar
  34. Kloppenburg, J. R. (1988). First the Seed: the Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000. Cambridge/ New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kloppenburg, J. R., J. Hendrickson, and G. W. Stevenson (1996). “Coming into the foodshed.” Agriculture and Human Values 13(3): 33-42.Google Scholar
  36. Lang, T. (1996). “Food security: Does it conflict with globalisation?” Development 4: 46-50.Google Scholar
  37. Lang, T. (1997). “The public health impact of globalisation of food trade.” In P. Shetty and K. McPherson (eds.), Diet, Nutrition, and Chronic Disease: Lessons from Contrasting Worlds. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  38. Lang, T. (1999). “Food policy for the 21st century: Can it be both radical and reasonable?” In M. Koc, R. MacRae, Luc J. A. Mougeot, and J. Welsh (eds.), For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 216-224). Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  39. Lockeretz, W. and M. D. Anderson (1990). “Famers' role in sustainable agriculture research.” American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 5(4): 178-182.Google Scholar
  40. Lockeretz, W. (1994). “What non-land-grant researchers can contribute to agricultural sustainability.” American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 9(1, 2): 28-33.Google Scholar
  41. Lockeretz, W. (1995). “Removing applied agricultural research from the academy.” American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 10(1): 19-24.Google Scholar
  42. MacRae, R. (1999). “Policy failure in the Canadian food system.” In M. Koc, R. MacRae, L. J. A. Mougeot, and J. Welsh (eds.), For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 182-194). Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  43. Mittal, A. (1998). Permanent Peoples' Tribunal on Global Corporations and Human Rights, 10 April. Sender: fianusa@pop.igc.apc.org (FIAN-USA).Google Scholar
  44. The Pesticides Trust (ed.) (1996). Growing Food Security: Challenging the Link between Pesticides and Access to Food. San Francisco: The Pesticides Trust/PAN.Google Scholar
  45. Power, E. (1999). “Combining social justice and sustainability.” In M. Koc, R. MacRae, L. J. A. Mougeot, and J. Welsh (eds.), For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 30-37). Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  46. Pulido, L. (1996). Environmentalism and Economic Justice: Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  47. Raynolds, L. (1991). “Women and agriculture in the Third World: A review and critique.” In W. H. Friedland, L. Busch, F. H. Buttel, and A. P. Rudy (eds.), Towards a New Political Economy of Agriculture (pp. 339-363). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  48. Raynolds, L. (1997). “Restructuring national agriculture, agrofood trade, and agrarian livelihoods in the Caribbean.” In D. Goodman and M. J. Watts (eds.), Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring (pp. 119-132). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Redclift, M. (1987). Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Riches, G. (1999). “Reaffirming the right to food in Canada: The role of community-based food security.” In M. Koc, R. MacRae, L. J. A. Mougeot, and J. Welsh (eds.), For Hunger-Proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 203-307). Canada: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
  51. Rosen, J. (1999). “New Jersey's migrant workers.” New Jersey Reporter (August): 18-31.Google Scholar
  52. Rosenfeld, R. A. (1985). Farm Women: Work, Farm, and Family in the United States. Chapel Hill/London: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sen, A. (1985). Commodities and Capabilities. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Shiva, V. (1993). Monocultures of the Mind: Perspectives on Biodiversity and Biotechnology. London/New Jersey: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  55. Townsend, J. G. with J. Bain de Corcuera (1993). “Feminists in the rainforest in Mexico.” Geoforum 24(1): 45-54.Google Scholar
  56. United Nations Centre for Human Rights (1989). Right to Adequate Food as a Human Right. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  57. United Nations Environment Programme (1992). The Contamination of Food. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global EnvironmentMonitoring System (GEMS) (UNEP/GEMS Environment Library No. 5).Google Scholar
  58. Vandermeer, J. H. and I. Perfecto (1995). Breakfast of Biodiversity: The Truth about Rain Forest Destruction. Oakland, CA (USA): The Institute for Food and Development Policy (a Food First Book).Google Scholar
  59. Van Esterik (1999). “Right to food; right to feed; right to be fed.” Agriculture and Human Values 16(2): 225-232.Google Scholar
  60. Walton, J. and D. Seddon (1994). Free Markets and Food Riots: The Politics of Global Adjustments. Cambridge (USA)/ Oxford (UK): Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  61. Waring, M. (1988). If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  62. Waring, M. (1999). Counting for Nothing: What Men Value and What Women are Worth, 2nd edn. Toronto/Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  63. Wells, B., S. Gradwell, and R. Yoder (1999). “Growing food, growing community: Community supported agriculture in rural Iowa.” Community Development Journal 34(1): 38-46.Google Scholar
  64. Whatmore, S. (1991). “Agricultural geography.” Progress in Human Geography 15(3): 303-310.Google Scholar
  65. Whatmore, S. and L. Thorne (1997). “Nourishing networks: Alternative geographies of food.” In D. Goodman and M. J. Watts (eds.), Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring (pp. 287-304). New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne C. Bellows
    • 1
  • Michael W. Hamm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutritional Sciences, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations