In Vitro Human Epidermal and Polyethylene Membrane Penetration and Retention of the Sunscreen Benzophenone-3 from a Range of Solvents
- Cite this article as:
- Jiang, R., Benson, H.A.E., Cross, S.E. et al. Pharm Res (1998) 15: 1863. doi:10.1023/A:1011958006973
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Purpose. To study epidermal and polyethylene membrane penetration and retention of the sunscreen benzophenone-3 (BP) from a range of single solvent vehicles and evaluate solvent effects on permeability parameters.
Methods. The solubility of BP was measured in a number of solvents. Penetration of BP across human epidermis and high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes was studied from 50% saturated solutions in each solvent.
Results. Maximal BP fluxes from the solvents across the two membranes varied widely. Highest fluxes were observed from 90% ethanol (EtOH) for epidermis and from isopropyl myristate (IPM) and C12−15 benzoate alcohols (C12−15 BA) for HDPE membrane. Both the flux and estimated permeability coefficient and skin-vehicle partitioning of BP appeared to be related to the vehicle solubility parameter (δv). The major effects of solvents on BP flux appear to be via changes in BP diffusivity through the membranes.
Conclusions. Minimal penetration of sunscreens such as BP is best achieved by choosing vehicles with a δv substantially different to the solubility parameter of the membrane.