For many nuclei beyond the proton drip line in the Z>72, N>82 region, both proton and α emission are energetically allowed. In the case of some proton emitters, there are α-decay chains emanating from both parent and daughter nuclei. This means that if the mass excess of one member of an α-decay chain is known, then the mass excesses for all members of both chains can be obtained. In addition, proton separation energies may be derived for nuclei in the α-decay chain of the proton emitter. The method of time- and space-correlations also allows the identification of isomeric states in these nuclei. As an example, a large number of mass excesses and proton separation energies for ground and metastable states have been derived from Qα and Qp values obtained from the proton emitters 165,166,167Ir, 171Au, 177Tl, and their daughters.
alpha-decay atomic mass drip-line nuclides nuclear binding energy proton radioactivity Q-values
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