Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 451, Issue 1–3, pp 259–273 | Cite as

Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics

  • Mike N Dawson
  • Laura E. Martin
Article

Abstract

Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data indicate considerable phylogeographic structure and at least five sibling species of Aurelia in the Pacific Ocean. At least a sixth sibling species can be found in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. These data suggest long histories of geographic and ecological sub-division and divergence of populations, which are inconsistent with current descriptions of Aurelia as a tri-typic genus in which most populations belong to one almost ubiquitous ecological generalist, A. aurita Linnaeus. Existing ecological and systematic descriptions of Aurelia, therefore, should be re-evaluated in light of these molecular data. Reciprocally, such re-evaluations should facilitate interpretation of the molecular data. Here, we introduce new DNA sequence data from Pacific and Black Sea Aurelia and novel ecological data describing tropical Aurelia inhabiting a marine lake in Palau, Micronesia. Despite large genetic distances between temperate and tropical Aurelia and the different environments inhabited by these populations, their rates of feeding, growth, respiration and swimming are similar. We discuss this result in terms of geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia and also comment on population dynamics, blooms, exotic species and the systematics of Aurelia. Finally, we consider briefly the implications of these findings for other scyphozoan species.

counter gradient variation feeding growth introduced species jellyfish phylogeography population dynamics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aksnes, D. L., C. B. Miller, M. D. Ohman & S. N. Wood, 1997. Estimation techniques used in studies of copepod population dynamics – a review of underlying assumptions. Sarsia 82: 279–295.Google Scholar
  2. Arai, M. N., 1997. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. Chapman & Hall, London: 316 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Avise, J. C., J. Arnold, R. M. Ball, E. Bermingham, T. Lamb, J. E. Neigel, C. A. Reeb & N. C. Saunders, 1987. Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 18: 489–522.Google Scholar
  4. Azevedo, R. B. R., A. C. James, J. McCabe & L. Partridge, 1998. Latitudinal variation of wing:thorax size ratio and wing-aspect ratio in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 52: 1353–1362.Google Scholar
  5. Bastrop, R., K. Jurss & C. Sturmbauer, 1998. Cryptic species in a marine polychaete and their independent introduction from North America to Europe. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Behrends, G. & G. Schneider, 1995. Impact of Aurelia aurita medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) on the standing stock and community composition of mesozooplankton in the Kiel Bight (western Baltic Sea). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 127: 39–45.Google Scholar
  7. Benzie, J. A. H., 1998. Penaeid genetics and biotechnology. Aquaculture 164: 23–47.Google Scholar
  8. Berstad, V., U. Båmstedt & M. B. Martinussen, 1995. Distribution and swimming of the jellyfishes Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata. In Skjoldal, H. R., C. Hopkins, K. E. Erikstad & H. P. Leinaas (eds), Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 257–271.Google Scholar
  9. Bridle, J. R. & C. D. Jiggins, 2000. Adaptive dynamics: is speciation too easy? Trends. Ecol. Evol. 15: 225–226.Google Scholar
  10. Briggs, J. C., 1974. Marine Zoogeography. McGraw-Hill, New York: 475 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Briggs, J. C., 1995. Global Biogeography. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 454 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, J. H., 1995. Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 269 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Clarke, A., 1993. Seasonal acclimatization and latitudinal compensation in metabolism: do they exist? Funct. Ecol. 7: 139–149.Google Scholar
  14. Cockrell, B. J., S. B. Malcolm & L. P. Brower, 1993. Time, temperature, and latitudinal constraints on the annual recolonization of eastern North America by the monarch butterfly. In Malcolm, S. B. & M. P. Zalucki (eds), Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County Sci. Ser. 38: 233–251.Google Scholar
  15. Colin, P. L. & C. Arneson, 1995. Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. Coral Reef Research Foundation, Coral Reef Press, Beverly Hills: 296 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Colwell, R. K. & D. C. Lees, 2000. The mid-domain effect: geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15: 70–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Conover, D. O. & E. T. Schultz, 1995. Phenotypic similarity and the evolutionary significance of countergradient variation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10: 248–252.Google Scholar
  18. Cossins, A. R. & K. Bowler, 1987. Temperature Biology of Animals. Chapman & Hall, London: 339 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Costello, J. H. & H. W. Mathieu, 1995. Seasonal abundance of medusae in Eel Pond, Massachusetts, U.S.A., during 1990–1991. J. Plankton Res. 17: 199–204.Google Scholar
  20. Dawson, M. N & D. K. Jacobs, 2001. Molecular evidence for cryptic species of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Biol. Bull. 200: 92–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dawson, M. N, L. E. Martin & L. K. Penland, 2001. Jellyfish swarms, tourists and the Christ-child. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 131–144.Google Scholar
  22. Dawson, M. N, K. A. Raskoff & D. K. Jacobs, 1998. Preservation of marine invertebrate tissues for DNA analyses. Mol. mar. Biol. Biotechnol. 7: 145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dennett, D. C., 1995. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meaning of Life. Touchstone, New York: 586 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Devaney, D. M. & L. G. Eldredge, 1977. Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii. B.P. Bishop Mus. spec. Publ. 64(1).Google Scholar
  25. Dobzhansky, T., 1950. Evolution in the tropics. Am. Sci. 38: 209–221.Google Scholar
  26. Ellner, S. & N. G. Hairston, 1994. Role of overlapping generations in maintaining genetic variation in a fluctuating environment. Am. Nat. 143: 403–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Futuyma, D. J., 1998. Evolutionary Biology, 3rd edn. Sinauer, Sunderland: 763 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Gosliner, T. M. & M. T. Ghiselin, 1984. Parallel evolution in opisthobranch gastropods and its implications for phylogenetic methodology. Syst. Zool. 33: 255–274.Google Scholar
  29. Grant, P. R. & B. R. Grant, 1998. Speciation and hybridization of birds on islands. In Grant, R. R. (ed), Evolution on Islands. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 142–162.Google Scholar
  30. Greenberg, N., R. L. Garthwaite & D. C. Potts, 1996. Allozyme and morphological evidence for a newly introduced species of Aurelia in San Francisco Bay, California. Mar. Biol. 125: 401–410.Google Scholar
  31. Hamner, W.M., 1995. Predation, cover, and convergent evolution in epipelagic oceans. Mar. Freshwat. Behav. Physiol. 26: 71–89.Google Scholar
  32. Hamner, W. M. & P. P. Hamner, 1998. Stratified marine lakes of Palau (Western Caroline Islands). Physical Geogr. 19: 175–220.Google Scholar
  33. Hamner, W. M. & I. R. Hauri, 1981. Long-distance horizontal migrations of zooplankton (Scyphomedusae: Mastigias). Limnol. Oceanogr. 26: 414–423.Google Scholar
  34. Hamner, W. M. & R. M. Jenssen, 1974. Growth, degrowth, and irreversible cell differentiation in Aurelia aurita. Am. Zool. 14: 833–849.Google Scholar
  35. Hamner, W. M. & D. Schneider, 1986. Regularly spaced rows of medusae in the Bering Sea: role of Langmuir circulation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 171–177.Google Scholar
  36. Hamner, W. M., R. W. Gilmer & P. P. Hamner, 1982. The physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of a stratified, saline, sulfide lake in Palau. Limnol. Oceangr. 27: 896–909.Google Scholar
  37. Hamner, W. M., P. P. Hamner & S. W. Strand, 1994. Sun-compass migration by Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa): population retention and reproduction in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. Mar. Biol. 119: 347–356.Google Scholar
  38. Hansson, L. J., 1997. Effect of temperature on growth rate of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from Gullmarsfjorden, Sweden. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161: 145–153.Google Scholar
  39. Heinze, J., S. Foitzik, V. E. Kipyatkov & E. B. Lopatina, 1998. Latitudinal variation in cold hardiness and body size in the boreal ant species Leptothorax acervorum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomol. Generalis 22: 305–312.Google Scholar
  40. Hernroth, L. & F. Gröndahl, 1985. On the biology of Aurelia aurita (L.): 2. Major factors regulating the occurrence of ephyrae and young medusae in the Gullmar Fjord, Western, Sweden. Bull. mar. Sci. 37: 567–576.Google Scholar
  41. Hochachka, P. W. & G. N. Somero, 1984. Biochemical Adaptation. Princeton University Press, Princeton: 537 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Huntley, M. E. & M. D. G. Lopez, 1992. Temperature-dependent production of marine copepods: a global synthesis. Am. Nat. 140: 201–242.Google Scholar
  43. Ishii, H. & U. Båmstedt, 1998. Food regulation of growth and maturation in a natural population of Aurelia aurita (L.). J. Plankton Res. 20: 805–816.Google Scholar
  44. Ishii, H. & F. Tanaka, 2001. Food and feeding of Aurelia aurita in Tokyo Bay with an analysis of stomach contents and a measurement of digestion times. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 311–320.Google Scholar
  45. Johnston, I. A., J. Calvo, H. Guderley, D. Fernandez & L. Palmer, 1998. Latitudinal variation in the abundance and oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria in perciform fishes. J. exp. Biol. 201: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kimmerer, W. J., 1983. Direct measurement of the production: biomass ratio of the subtropical calanoid copepod Acrocalanus inermis. J. Plankton Res. 5: 1–14.Google Scholar
  47. Kingsford, M. J., E. Wolanski & J. H. Choat, 1991. Influence of tidally induced fronts and Langmuir circulations on distribution and movements of presettlement fishes around a coral reef. Mar. Biol. 109: 167–180.Google Scholar
  48. Kluge, A. G., 1998. Total evidence or taxonomic congruence: Cladistics or consensus classification. Cladistics 14: 151–158.Google Scholar
  49. Knowlton, N., 1993. Sibling species in the sea. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24: 189–216.Google Scholar
  50. Kramp, P. L., 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the world. J. Mar. biol. Assoc. U.K. 40: 337–342.Google Scholar
  51. Kramp, P. L., 1965. Some medusae (mainly scyphomedusae) from Australian coastal waters. Trans. r. Soc. South Aust. 89: 257–278.Google Scholar
  52. Kramp, P. L., 1968. The scyphomedusae collected by the Galathea expedition 1950–52. Vidensk. Meddr. Dansk Naturh. Foren. 31: 67–98.Google Scholar
  53. Larson, R. J., 1987. Respiration and carbon turnover rates of medusae from the NE Pacific. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 87A: 93–100.Google Scholar
  54. Larson, R. J., 1992. Riding Langmuir circulations and swimming in circles: a novel form of clustering behavior by the scyphomedusa Linuche unguiculata. Mar. Biol. 112: 229–235.Google Scholar
  55. Lebedeva, L. P. & E. A. Shushkina, 1991. Evaluation of population characteristics of the medusa Aurelia aurita in the Black Sea. Oceanology 31: 314–319.Google Scholar
  56. Lucas, C. H., 1996. Population dynamics of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) from an isolated brackish lake, with particular reference to sexual reproduction. J. Plankton Res. 18: 987–1007.Google Scholar
  57. Lucas, C. H., 2001. Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 229–246.Google Scholar
  58. Lucas, C. H. & J. A. Williams, 1994. Population dynamics of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in Southampton Water. J. Plankton Res. 16: 879–895.Google Scholar
  59. Lynch, J. D., 1989. The gauge of speciation: on the frequencies of modes of speciation. In Otte, D. & J. A. Endler (eds), Speciation and its Consequences. Sinauer, Sunderland: 527–553.Google Scholar
  60. Martin, L. E., 1999. The population biology and ecology of Aurelia sp. (Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) in a tropical meromictic marine lake in Palau, Micronesia. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles: 250 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Martinussen, M. B. & Båmstedt, U., 1995. Diet, estimated daily food ration and predator impact by the scyphozoan jellyfishes Aurelia aurita and Cyanea capillata. In Skjoldal, H. R., C. Hopkins, K. E. Eirkstad & H. P. Leinaas (eds), Ecology of Fjords and Coastal Waters. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 127–145.Google Scholar
  62. Mayer A. G., 1910. Medusae of the World, III: the Scyphomedusae. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 109: 619–630.Google Scholar
  63. Mayer A. G., 1914. The effects of temperature upon tropical marine animals. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 183: 55–83.Google Scholar
  64. McCloskey, L. R., L Muscatine & F. P. Wilkerson, 1994. Daily photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon budgets in a tropical marine jellyfish (Mastigias sp.). Mar. Biol. 119: 13–22.Google Scholar
  65. McFall-Ngai, M. J., 1990. Crypsis in the pelagic environment. Amer. Zool. 30: 175–188.Google Scholar
  66. Mianzan, H. W. & P. F. S. Cornelius, 1999. Cubomedusae and scyphomedusae. In Boltovskoy, D. (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton, I. Backhuys, Leiden: 513–559.Google Scholar
  67. Mills, C. E., 2001. Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 55–68.Google Scholar
  68. Miyake, H., K. Iwao & Y. Kakinuma, 1997. Life history and environment of Aurelia aurita. South Pacific Study 17: 273–285.Google Scholar
  69. Möller, H., 1980a. Population dynamics of Aurelia aurita medusae in Kiel Bight, Germany (FRG). Mar. Biol. 60: 123–128.Google Scholar
  70. Möller, H., 1980b. Scyphomedusae as predators and food competitors of larval fish. Meeresforsch 28: 90–100.Google Scholar
  71. MPA, 1999. Massachusetts Port Authority. http://www.massport.com/about/publi.html.Google Scholar
  72. Muscatine, L. & R. E. Marian, 1982. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic medusae. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27: 910–917.Google Scholar
  73. Mutlu, E., F. Bingel, A. C. Gücü, V. V. Melnikov, U. Niermann, N. A. Ostr & V. E. Zaika, 1994. Distribution of the new invader Mnemiopsis sp. and the resident Aurelia aurita and Pleurobrachia pileus populations in the Black Sea in the years 1991–1993. ICES J. mar. Sci. 51: 407–421.Google Scholar
  74. Naumov, D. V., 1961. Scyphomedusae of the seas of the USSR. Opredeliteli po Faune SSSR 75: 1–98. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  75. Nielson, A. S., A. W. Pederson & H. U. Riisgård, 1997. Implications of density driven currents for interaction between jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and zooplankton in a Danish fjord. Sarsia 82: 297–305.Google Scholar
  76. NOAA, 1999. Coastwatch: ocean color sst. http://coastwatch.noaa.gov/COASTWATCH/Google Scholar
  77. Nybakken, J. W., 1988. Marine Biology: an Ecological Approach, 2nd edn. Harper & Row, Cambridge, 514 pp.Google Scholar
  78. Olesen, N. J., K. Frandsen & H. U. Riisgård, 1994. Population dynamics, growth and energetics of jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a shallow fjord. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 105: 9–18.Google Scholar
  79. Omori, M., H. Ishii & A. Fujinaga, 1995. Life history strategy of Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) and its impact on the zooplankton community of Tokyo Bay. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 52: 597–603.Google Scholar
  80. Papathanassiou, E., P. Panayotidis & K. Anagnostaki, 1987. Notes on the biology and ecology of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita Lam. in Elefsis Bay (Saronikos Gulf, Greece). Mar. Ecol. 8: 49–58.Google Scholar
  81. Potter, D., T. C. Lajeunesse, G. W. Saunders & R. A. Anderson, 1997. Convergent evolution masks extensive biodiversity among marine coccoid picoplankton. Biodiv. Conserv. 6: 99–107.Google Scholar
  82. Purcell J. E., 1997. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores as predators: Selective predation, feeding rates and effects on prey populations. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr. 73: 125–137.Google Scholar
  83. Purcell, J. E., E. D. Brown, K. D. E. Stokesbury, L.H. Haldorson & T. C. Shirley, 2000. Aggregations of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata: abundance, distribution, association with age-0 walleye pollock, and behaviors promoting aggregation in Prince William Sound, Alaska, U.S.A. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 195: 145–158.Google Scholar
  84. Rasmussen, E., 1973. Systematics and ecology of the Isefjord marine fauna (Denmark) with a survey of the eelgrass (Zostera) vegetation and its communities. Ophelia 11: 1–46.Google Scholar
  85. Ridley, M., 1993. Evolution. Blackwell, Boston: 670 pp.Google Scholar
  86. Rooney, A. P. & J. Zhang, 1999. Rapid evolution of a primate sperm protein: Relaxation of functional constraint or positive Darwinian selection? Mol. Biol. Evol. 16: 706–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Russell, F. S., 1970. The Medusae of the British Isles. II Pelagic Scyphozoa with a Supplement to the First Volume on Hydromedusae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 284 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Rutherford, S. L. & S. Lindquist, 1998. Hsp90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution. Nature 396: 336–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sabitini, M. & T. Kiorbe, 1994. Egg production, growth and development of the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis. J. Plankton Res. 16: 1329–1351.Google Scholar
  90. Sanz, J. J., 1999. Does daylength explain the latitudinal variation in clutch size of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca? Ibis 141: 100–108.Google Scholar
  91. Sasaki, A. & G. De Jong, 1999. Density dependence and unpredictable selection in a heterogeneous environment: compromise and polymorphism in the ESS reaction norm. Evolution 53: 1329–1342.Google Scholar
  92. Sasaki, A. & S. Ellner, 1997. Quantitative genetic variance maintained by fluctuating selection with overlapping generations: variance components and covariances. Evolution 51: 682–696.Google Scholar
  93. Schneider, G., 1988. Larvae production of the common jelly-fish Aurelia aurita in the Western Baltic 1982-1984. Kieler Meeresforsch. Sonderh. 6: 295–300.Google Scholar
  94. Schneider, G. & G. Behrends, 1998. Top-down control in a neritic plankton system by Aurelia aurita medusae – a summary. Ophelia 48: 71–82.Google Scholar
  95. Schultz, E. T, D. O. Conover & A. Ehtisham, 1998. The dead of winter: size-dependent variation and genetic differences in seasonal mortality among Atlantic silverside (Atherinidae: Menidia menidia) from different latitudes. Can. J. Fish. aquatic Sci. 55: 1149–1157.Google Scholar
  96. Shick, J. M., 1973. Effects of salinity and starvation on the uptake and utilization of dissolved glycine by Aurelia aurita polyps. Biol. Bull. 144: 172–179.Google Scholar
  97. Shick, J. M., 1975. Uptake and utilization of dissolved glycine by Aurelia aurita scyphistomae: temperature effects on the uptake process; nutritional role of dissolved amino acids. Biol. Bull. 148: 117–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Shushkina, E. A. & E. I. Musayeva, 1983. The role of jellyfish in the energy system of Black Sea plankton communities. Oceanology 23: 92–96.Google Scholar
  99. Shushkina, E. A. & E. I. Musayeva, 1990. Structure of planktic community of the Black Sea epipelagic zone and its variation caused by invasion of a new ctenophore species. Oceanology 30: 225–228.Google Scholar
  100. Shushkina, E. A. & G. N. Arnautov, 1985. Quantitative distribution of the medusa Aurelia and its role in the Black Sea ecosystem. Oceanology 25: 102–106.Google Scholar
  101. Slade, R. W. & C. Moritz, 1998. Phylogeography of Bufo marinus from its natural and introduced ranges. Proc. r. Soc. Lond. B 265: 769–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Sorenson, M. D., 1996. TreeRot. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  103. Steel, R. G. D. & J. H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, A Biometrical Approach, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, Auckland: 633 pp.Google Scholar
  104. Stepien, C. A., A. K. Dillon & M. D. Chandler, 1998. Genetic identity, phylogeography and systematics of ruffe Gymnocephalus in the North American Great Lakes and Eurasia. J. Great Lakes Res. 24: 361–378.Google Scholar
  105. Stevens, G. C., 1989. The latitudinal gradient in geographical range: how so many species co-exist in the tropics. Am. Nat. 133: 240–256.Google Scholar
  106. Stoecker, D. K., A. E. Michaels & L. H. Davis, 1987. Grazing by the jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, on microzooplankton. J. Plankton Res. 9: 901–915.Google Scholar
  107. Swofford, D. L., 1993. PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, Version 3.1. Computer program distributed by the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois.Google Scholar
  108. Swofford, D. L., 2000. PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, v.4.0b3a. Smithsonian Institution and Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  109. Takahata, N., 1993. Relaxed natural selection in human populations during the Pleistocene. Japan. J. Genet. 68: 539–547.Google Scholar
  110. Unwin, D. M. & S. A. Corbet. 1984. Wingbeat frequency, temperature and body size in bees and flies. Physiol. Entomol. 9: 115–121.Google Scholar
  111. USGS, 2000. Water quality of San Francisco Bay – temperature time series http://sfbay.wr.usgs.gov/access/wqdata /overview/examp/charts/temp.htmlGoogle Scholar
  112. Uye, S., 1994. Replacement of large copepods by small ones with eutrophication of embayments: cause and consequence. Hydrobiologia 292/293: 513–519.Google Scholar
  113. Van Der Veer, H. W. & W. Oorthuysen, 1985. Abundance, growth and food demand of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita in the western Wadden Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res. 19: 38–44.Google Scholar
  114. Van Voorhies, W. A., 1996. Bergmann size clines: a simple explanation for their occurrence in ectotherms. Evolution 50: 1259–1264.Google Scholar
  115. Van't Land, J., P. Van Putten, B. Zwaan, A. Kamping & W. Van Delden, 1999. Latitudinal variation in wild populations of Drosophila melanogaster: heritabilities and reaction norms. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 222–232.Google Scholar
  116. Watanabe, T. & H. Ishii, 2001. In situ estimation of ephyrae liberated from polyps of Aurelia aurita using settling plates in Tokyo Bay, Japan. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 247–258.Google Scholar
  117. Wilkinson, L., M. Hill, J. P. Welna & G. K. Birkenbeuel, 1992. SYSTAT for Windows: statistics, version 5 edition. SYSTAT Inc., Evanston: 750 pp.Google Scholar
  118. Wrobel, D. & C. Mills, 1998. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates, a Guide to the Common Gelatinous Animals. Sea Challengers and Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey: 108 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Yang, Z., 1998. On the best evolutionary rate for phylogenetic analysis. Syst. Biol. 47: 125–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Yasuda, T., 1968. Ecological studies on the jelly-fish, Aurelia aurita, in Urazoko Bay, Fukuii Prefecture – II. Occurrence pattern of ephyrae. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 34: 983–987.Google Scholar
  121. Yasuda, T., 1969. Ecological studies on the jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in Urazoko Bay, Fukui Prefecture – IV. Occurrence pattern of the medusa. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 35: 1–6.Google Scholar
  122. Yasuda, T., 1971. Ecological studies on the jelly-fish, Aurelia aurita, in Urazoko Bay, Fukuii Prefecture – IV. Monthly change in bell-length composition and breeding season. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 37: 364–370.Google Scholar
  123. Youngbluth, M. & U. Båmstedt, 2001. Distribution, abundance, behavior and metabolism of Periphylla periphylla, a mesopelagic coronate medusa in a Norwegian Fjord. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 321–333.Google Scholar
  124. Zaitsev, Y. P., 1992. Recent changes in the trophic structure of the Black Sea. Fish. Oceanogr. 1: 180–189.Google Scholar
  125. Zubkoff, P. L. & A. L. Linn, 1975. Isozymes of Aurelia aurita scyphistomae obtained from different geographical locations. In Markert, C. L. (ed.), Isozymes IV: Genetics and Evolution. Academic Press, New York: 915–930.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mike N Dawson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laura E. Martin
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Organismic Biology, Ecology, and EvolutionUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesU.S.A.
  2. 2.Coral Reef Research FoundationKororRepublic of Palau
  3. 3.Coral Reef Research FoundationKororRepublic of Palau

Personalised recommendations