Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 62, Issue 1–3, pp 13–41 | Cite as

It's a Wonderful Hypogean Life: A Guide to the Troglomorphic Fishes of the World

  • Aldemaro Romero
  • Kelly M. Paulson


There are at least 86 species of troglomorphic fishes belonging to 18 families. Some of those families are characterized by features that can be labeled as preadaptations to the hypogean life; others are not. The level of structural reduction in eye development and pigmentation is highly variable, even within some populations. Reduction in number and complexity of scales does occur but has yet to be fully documented. Reduction in the size and structure of the swim(gas)bladder may be another troglomorphic feature. There is considerable doubt on the taxonomic position of many species of troglomorphic fishes given that a number of them have been described solely on the basis of morphology while genetically they may be very closely correlated to genera different from those they have been assigned to. Geographically speaking there are no evident patterns since many of those species are not found in karstic areas but in phreatic waters. These fishes represent an excellent example of convergent evolution.

hypogean fishes biodiversity systematics taxonomy geographical distribution convergent evolution 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, G.R. 1996. Oxyeleotris caeca, a new species of blind cave fish (Eleotridae) from Papua New Guinea. Rev. Fr. Aquariol. 23: 43–46.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, G.R. & D.R. Robertson. 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. Crawford House Press, Bathurst. 332 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, J. 1946. Revisión del género Anoptichthys con descripción de una especie nueva (Pisc., Characidae). An. Esc. Nac. Cienc. Biol. Mex. 4: 263–282.Google Scholar
  4. Alvarez, J. 1947. Descripción de Anoptichthys hubbsi caracínido ciego de la cueva de los Sabinos, S.L.P. Rev. Soc. Mex. Hist. Nat. 8: 215–219.Google Scholar
  5. Andreani Armas, L.E. 1990. Estudio comparativo de dos poblaciones, una hipogea y otra epigea de Trichomycterus sp. (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Bol. Soc. Venez. Speleol. (24): 7–11.Google Scholar
  6. Andreas Buckup, P. 1988. The genus Heptapterus (Teleostei, Pimelodidae) in southern Brazil and Uruguay with the description of a new species. Copeia 1988: 641–653.Google Scholar
  7. Angel, F. 1949. Contribution a l'etude du Typhleotris madagascariensis, poisson aveugle, cavernicole, du Sud-Ouest de Madagascar. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 21: 56–59.Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous. 1981. Freshwater fishes of Guangxi. Fisheries Research Institute, Guangxi, Remnin Press, Nanking. 257 pp. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  9. Arnoult, J. 1959. Une nouvelle espéce de poisson aveugle de Madagascar: Typhleotris pauliani n. sp. Mem. Inst. Sci. Madagascar 13A: 133–138.Google Scholar
  10. Avise, J.C. & R.K. Selander. 1972. Evolutionary genetics of cavedwelling fishes of the genus Astyanax. Evol. 26: 1–19.Google Scholar
  11. Bailey, R.M. & C. Gans. 1998. Two new synbranchid fishes, Monopterus roseni from Peninsular India and M. desilvai from Sri Lanka. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (726): 1–18.Google Scholar
  12. Baird, S.F. & C.F. Girard. 1854. Descriptions of new species of fishes collected in Texas, NewMexico and Sonora, by Mr. John H. Clark, on the U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, and in Texas by Capt. Stewart Van Vliet, U.S.A. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 7: 24–29.Google Scholar
  13. Banister, K.E. 1987. Two new species of Garra (Teleostei-Cyprinidae) from the Arabian peninsula. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 52: 59–70.Google Scholar
  14. Banister, K.E. 1994. Glossogobius ankaranensis, a new species of blind cave goby from Madagascar (Pisces: Gobioidei:Gobiidae). Aqua, J. Ichthy. Aquat. Biol. 1: 25–28.Google Scholar
  15. Banister, K.E., J. Bell & M. Crumpler. 1992. Omani blind cave fish. Aquarist and Pondkeeper 1992: 38–40.Google Scholar
  16. Banister, K.E. & M.K. Bunni. 1980. A new blind cyprinid fish from Iraq. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.). 38: 151–158.Google Scholar
  17. Berti, R. 1990. Specific chemical recognition in Phreatichthys andruzzii (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Mem. Biospeleol. 17: 31.Google Scholar
  18. Berti, R. & A. Ercolini. 1979. Aggressive behaviour in the anophthalmic phreatic fish Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianferrari (Claridae, Siluriformes). Monit. Zool. Ital 13: 197.Google Scholar
  19. Berti, R. & A. Ercolini 1991. Caecogobius, cryptophthalmus n. gen. n. sp. (Gobiidae Gobiinae), the first stygobic fish from Philippines. Trop. Zool. 4: 129–138.Google Scholar
  20. Berti, R. & G. Thinés. 1980. Influence of chemical signals on the topographic orientation of the cave fish Caecobarbus geertsi – Boulenger (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Experientia 36: 1384–1385.Google Scholar
  21. Berti, R. & L. Zorn. 2001. Locomotory responses of the cave cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii to chemical signals from conspecifics and related species: new findings. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 107–114 (this volume).Google Scholar
  22. Bianchi. S. 1975. Preliminary observations on the epidermis of Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianferrari (Claridae: Siluriformes). Monit. Zool. Ital. 5: 91–101.Google Scholar
  23. Bianchi, S., G. Delfino & A. Ercolini. 1978. Morphology and structure of the olfactory organ in Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianferrari (Claridae, Siluriformes), anophthalmic phreatic fish from Somalia. Monit. Zool. Ital. 10: 157–171.Google Scholar
  24. Biswas, J. 1991. Annual modulation of diel motor activity rhythm of the dusk active loach Nemacheils evezardi (Day). A correlation between day length and circadian parameters. Proc. Indian Nat. Acad. Sci. B57: 339–346.Google Scholar
  25. Biswas, J., A.K. Pati, R.K. Pradhan & R.S. Kanoje. 1990. Comparative aspects of reproductive phase dependent adjustments in behavioural circadian rhythms of epigean and hypogean fish. Comp. Physiol. Ecol. 15: 134–139.Google Scholar
  26. Borodin, N.A. 1927. A new blind catfish from Brazil. Amer. Mus. Novit. (263): 1–5.Google Scholar
  27. Boschung, H.T. 1992. Catalogue of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Bull. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. (14): 1–266.Google Scholar
  28. Boucquey, C., G. Thines & C. Van Der Borght. 1965. Étude comparative de la capacité photopathique et de l'activité chez le poisson cavernicole Anoptichthys antrobius, chez la forme epigee ancestrale Astyanax mexicanus, et chez les hybrides F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) et F2. pp. 79–103. In: J. Mendioni (ed.) La Distribution Temporelle des Activités Animales et Humaines, Masson et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  29. Boulenger, G. 1921. Description d'un poisson aveugle decouvert par M.G. Geerts dans la grotte de Thysville (Bas-Congo). Rev. Zool. Afr. 9: 252–253.Google Scholar
  30. Breder, C.M. 1942. Descriptive ecology of La Cueva Chica, with especial reference to the blind fish, Anoptichthys. Zoologica 27: 7–15.Google Scholar
  31. Breder, C.M. & E.B. Gresser. 1941. Correlations between structural eye defects and behavior in the Mexican blind characin. Zoologica 26: 123–131.Google Scholar
  32. Brittan, M.R. & J.E. Böhlke. 1965. A new blind characid fish from southeaster Brazil. Notulae Naturae (380): 1–4.Google Scholar
  33. Brown, R.W. 1956. Composition of scientificwords. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 882 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Bruton, M.N. 1995. Threatened fishes of the world: Clarias cavernicola Trewavas, 1936 (Clariidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 43: 162.Google Scholar
  35. Bruun, A.F. & E.W. Kaiser. 1944. Iranocypris typhlops, the first true cave fish from Asia. Danish Scient. Invest. Iran (4): 1–8.Google Scholar
  36. Burr, B.M., G.L. Adams, J.K. Krejca, R.J. Paul & M.L. Warren, Jr. 2001. Troglomorphic sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group in Perry County, Missouri: distribution, external morphology, and conservation status review. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 279–296 (this volume).Google Scholar
  37. Cardona, L. & G. Guerao. 1994. Astroblepus riberae, una nueva especie de siluriforme cavernícola del Peru (Osteichthyes: Astroblepidae). Mém. Biospéléol. (21): 21–24.Google Scholar
  38. Carranza, J. 1954. Descripcion del primer bagre anoftalmo y depigmentado encontrado en aguasmexicanas (Pisc., Ameiur.). Ciencia (Mexico) 14: 129–136.Google Scholar
  39. Carvalho, A.M. & M.C.C. de Pinna. 1986. Estudo de uma populacao hipogea de Trichomycterus (Ostariophysi, Siluroidei, Trichomucteridae) da Gruta de Olhos d'Agua, MG. Espeleo-Tema 15: 53–64.Google Scholar
  40. Chardon, M. 1966. Specialisation anatomique de l'appareil de Weber d'Astroblepus pholeter, silure cavernicole microphtalme de la Republique de l'Equateur. Acad. Roy. Belg. Bull. Cl. Sci. 52: 846–863.Google Scholar
  41. Chen, Y.-Y., X.-L. Chu, Z.-Y. Luo & J.-Y. Wu. 1988. A new blind cyprinid fish from Yunnan, China with a reference to the evolution of its characters. Acta Zool. Sin. 34: 64–70 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  42. Chen, Y.-R., J.-X. Yang & J.-H. Lan. 1997. One new species of blind cavefish from Guangxi with comments on its phylogenetic status (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae: Barbinae). Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 22: 219–223 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  43. Chen, Y.-R., J.-X. Yang, B. Sket & G. Aljancic. 1998. A new blind cave loach of Paracobitis with comments on its characters evolution. Zool. Res. 19: 59–63 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  44. Chen, Y.-R., J.-X. Yang & G.-C. Xu. 1992. A new blind loach of Triplophysa from Yunnan Stone Forest with comments on its phylogenetic reiationship [sic]. Zool. Res. 13: 17–23 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  45. Chen, Y.-R., J.-X. Yang & Z.-G. Zhu. 1994. A new fish of the genus Sinocyclocheilus from Yunnan with comments on its characteristic adaptation (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Acta Zool. Sin. 19: 246–253 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  46. Chu, S.-L. & Y.-R. Chen. 1979. A new blind cobitid fish (Pisces, Cypriniformes) from subterranean waters in Yunnan, China. Acta Zool. Sin. 25: 285–287 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  47. Chu, X.-L. & Y.-R. Chen. 1982. A new genus and species of blind cyprinid fish from China with special reference to its relationships. Acta Zool. Sin. 28: 383–388 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  48. Chumba-Segura, L. 1983. Brotulidae: Typhliasina pearsei. Fauna de Los Cenotes de Yucatan (4): 1–9.Google Scholar
  49. Chumba-Segura, L. 1984. Synbranchidae: Ophisternon infernale. Fauna de Los Cenotes de Yucatán (6): 1–9.Google Scholar
  50. Coad, B.W. 1996. Threatened fishes of the world: Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Cyprinidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 46: 374.Google Scholar
  51. Collette, B.B. 1962. Astroblepus pholeter, a new species of cavedwelling catfish from eastern Ecuador. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 75: 311–314.Google Scholar
  52. Cohen, D.M. & C.R. Robins. 1970. A new ophidioid fish (genus Lucifuga) from a limestone sink, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 83: 133–144.Google Scholar
  53. Contreras-Balderas, S. & M. de L. Lozano-Vilano. 1988. Problemas nomenclaturales de las formasmexicanas del género Astyanax (Pisces:Characidae). Zoología Informa (38): 1–13.Google Scholar
  54. Cooper, J.E. & R.A. Kuehne. 1974. Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni, a new genus and species of subterranean fish from Alabama. Copeia 1974: 486–493.Google Scholar
  55. Cuvier, G. 1819. Sur les poissons du sous-genre Hydrocyon, sur deux nouvelles espéces de Chalceus, sur trois nouvelles espéces du serrasalmes, et sur l'Argentina glossodonta de Forskahl, qui est l'Albula gonorhynchus de Bloch. Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 5: 351–379.Google Scholar
  56. Dai, D.-Y. 1988. Unnouveau poisson cavernicole. Spelunca Mem. (16): 88–89.Google Scholar
  57. Day, F. 1872. Monograph of Indian Cyprinidae, Part IV. J. Asiatic Soc. 41: 171–198.Google Scholar
  58. DeKay, J.E. 1842. Zoology of New York or the New-York fauna, Part IV, fishes. W. & A. White & J. Visscher, Albany. 566 pp.Google Scholar
  59. De Filippi, F. 1853. Nouvelles espèces de poissons. Rev. Mag. Zool. (Ser. 2) v. 5: 164–171.Google Scholar
  60. de Pinna, M.C.C. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of neotropical Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi): historical overview and synthesis of hypotheses. pp. 279–330. In: L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M. Lucena & C.A.S. Lucena (ed.) Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, Edipucrs, Porto Alegre.Google Scholar
  61. Díaz Perez, P.A. 1988. Lucifuga teresinarum sp. n., nueva especie cubana de peces troglobios (Ophidiiformes, Bythitidae). Rev. Biol. (Habana) 2: 37–43.Google Scholar
  62. Di Caporiacco, L. 1926. Un nuovo genere di ciprinide somalo delle acque di pozzo (One new cyprinid genus from a well in Somalia). Monit. Zool. Ital. 37: 23–25.Google Scholar
  63. Di Capporiacco, L. 1927. Pesci recolti in Somalia nel 1924, della spedizione Stefanini e Puccini. Monit. Zool. Ital. 38: 84–89.Google Scholar
  64. Durand, J. 1968. Etude des poissons récoltés dans la grotte de Umayalanta (Bolivie), Trichomycterus chaberti sp. n. Ann. Spéléol. 23: 343–353.Google Scholar
  65. Eapen, K.C. 1963. A new species of Monoptereus from South India. Bull. Dept. Mar. Biol. Ocean. Univ. Kerala 1: 129–132.Google Scholar
  66. Eigenmann, C.H. 1897. The Amblyopsidae and eyes of blind fishes. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1897: 230–231.Google Scholar
  67. Eigenmann, C.H. 1898. On the Amblyopsidae. Science 7: 227.Google Scholar
  68. Eigenmann, C.H. 1899. A case of convergence. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 1899: 247–251.Google Scholar
  69. Eigenmann, C.H. 1905. Divergence and convergence in fishes. Biol. Bull. Woods Hole 8: 59–66.Google Scholar
  70. Eigenmann, C.H. 1912. The freshwater fishes of British Guiana, including a study of the ecological grouping of species, and the relation of the fauna of the plateau to that of the lowlands. Mem. Carnegie Mus. 5: 1–103.Google Scholar
  71. Eigenmann, C.H. 1919. Trogloglanis pattersoni a new blind fish from San Antonio, Texas. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. 58: 397–400.Google Scholar
  72. Erckens, W. & F. Weber. 1976. Rudiments of an ability for time measuremens in cavernicole fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs & Innes (Pisces: Characidae). Experientia 32: 1297–1299.Google Scholar
  73. Ercolini, A. & R. Berti. 1975. Light sensitivity experiments and morphology studies of the blind phreatic fish Phreatichthys andruzzii Vinciguerra from Somalia. Monit. Zool. Ital. 6: 29–43.Google Scholar
  74. Ercolini, A. & R. Berti. 1977. Morphology and response to light of Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianferrari, anophthalmic phreatic fish from Somalia. Monit. Zool. Ital. 9: 183–199.Google Scholar
  75. Ercolini, A. & R. Berti. 1978. Morphology and response to light of Barbopsis devecchii di Caporiacco (Cyprinidae), microphthalmic phreatic fish from Somalia. Monit. Zool. Ital. 10: 299–314.Google Scholar
  76. Ercolini, A., R. Berti, L. Chelazzi & G. Messana. 1982. Researches on the phreatobic fishes of Somalia: achievements and prospects. Monit. Zool. Ital. 17: 219–241.Google Scholar
  77. Ercolini, A., R. Berti, L. Chelazzi & G. Messana. 1987. Oxygen consumption in hypogean and epigean cyprinids (Pisces). Monit. Zool. Ital. 22(Suppl.): 23–30.Google Scholar
  78. Espinasa, L., P. Rivas-Manzano & H. Espinosa Pérez. 2001. iA new blind cave fish population of genus Astyanax: geography, morphology and behavior. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 339–344 (this volume).Google Scholar
  79. Etnier, D.A. & W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. 681 pp.Google Scholar
  80. Fowler, H.W. & H. Steinitz. 1956. Fishes from Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel and Oman. Bull. Res. Counc. Israel. 5B: 260–292.Google Scholar
  81. Galán, C. 1982. Fauna troglobia de Venezuela: sinopsis, biología, ambiente, distribución y evolución. Bol. Soc. Venez. Speleol. (29): 20–38.Google Scholar
  82. Galán, C. 1995. Fauna troglobia de Venezuela: sinopsis, biología, ambiente, distribución y evolución. Bol. Soc. Venez. Speleol. 29: 20–38.Google Scholar
  83. Gerard, P. 1936. Sur l'existence des vestiges oculaires chez Caecobarbus geertsi. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Melages P. Pelseneer 1936: 549–552.Google Scholar
  84. Géery, J. 1977. Characoids of the world. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City. 672 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Gianferrari, L. 1923. Uegitglanis zammaranoi un nuovo siluride cieco africano (Uegitglanis zammaranoi, a new African cave silurid). Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Milan. 62: 1–3.Google Scholar
  86. Gianferrari, L. 1930. Un nuovo ciprinide Somalo (Barbopsis Stefaninii Gianf.). Atti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. (Milano) 69: 106–111.Google Scholar
  87. Gianferrari, L. 1934. I pesci cavernicoli ciechi africani. Ross. Fauna 2: 33–36.Google Scholar
  88. Girard, C.F. 1859. Ichthyological notes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1859: 63–64.Google Scholar
  89. Goeldi, E.A. 1905. Nova zoologica aus der Amazonas-Region. Neue Wirbeltiere. C.R. 6. Congr. Internat. Zool., Berne 1905: 542–549.Google Scholar
  90. Gordon, M.S. & G.E. Rosen. 1962. A cavernicolous form of the poeciliid fish Poecilia sphenops from Tabasco, Mexico. Copeia 1962: 360–368.Google Scholar
  91. Gotch, A.F. 1995. Latin names explained. A guide to the scientific classification of reptiles, birds & mammals. Facts on File, New York. 714 pp.Google Scholar
  92. Green, S. & A. Romero. 1997. Responses to light in two blind cave fishes (Amblyopsis spelaea and Typhlichthys subterraneus) (Pisces: Amblyopsidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 50: 167–174.Google Scholar
  93. Greenfield, D.W., T.A. Greenfield & R.L. Woods. 1982. A new subspecies of cave-dwelling pimelodid catfish, Rhamdia laticauda typhla from Belize, Central America. Brenesia (19/20): 563–576.Google Scholar
  94. Greenwood, P.H. 1976. A new and eyeless cobitid fish (Pisces, Cypriniformes) from the Zagros Mountains, Iran. J. Zool. 180: 129–137.Google Scholar
  95. Haseman, J.D. 1911. Descriptions of some new species of fishes and miscellaneous notes on others obtained during the expedition of the Carnegie Museum to central South America. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 7: 315–328.Google Scholar
  96. Hendrickson, D.A., J.K. Krejca & J.M. Rodríguez Martinez. 2001. Mexican blindcats genus Prietella (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae): an overview of recent explorations. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 315–337 (this volume).Google Scholar
  97. Heuts, M.-J. 1951. Ecology, variation and adaptation of the blind African cave fish Caecobarbus geerstsii Blgr. Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. Belg. 82: 115–230.Google Scholar
  98. Heuts, M.J. & N. Leleup. 1954. La geographie et l'ecologie des grottes du Bas-Congoles habitats de Caecobarbus geertsi Blgr. Ann. Mus. Roy. Congo Belge 35: 1–71.Google Scholar
  99. Hora, S.L. 1924. Fish of the Siju Cave, Garo Hills, Assam. Rec. Indian Mus. 26: 27–31.Google Scholar
  100. Hubbs, C.L. 1936. XVII. Fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. (457): 157–287.Google Scholar
  101. Hubbs, C.L. 1938. Fishes from the caves of Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. (491): 261–295.Google Scholar
  102. Hubbs, C.L. 1961. Isolating mechanisms in the speciation of fishes. pp. 5–23. In: W.F. Blair (ed.) Vertebrate Speciation: A symposium, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  103. Hubbs, C.L. & R.M. Bailey. 1947. Blind catfishes from artesian waters of Texas. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (499): 1–15Google Scholar
  104. Hubbs, C.L. & W.T. Innes. 1936. he first known blind fish of the family Characidae: a new genus from Mexico. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. (342): 1–7.Google Scholar
  105. Humboldt, A. von. 1805. Mémoire sur une nouvelle espéce de pimelode, jetée par les volcans du Royaume de Quito. Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland, Deuxiéme partie, Observations de Zoologie et d'Anatomie comparée, Paris 1: 21–25.Google Scholar
  106. Humphreys, W.F. 1999. The distribution of Australian cave fishes. Rec. Western Austr. Mus. 19: 469–472.Google Scholar
  107. Humphreys, W.F. 2001. Milyeringa veritas (Eleotridae), a remarkably versatile cave fish from the arid tropics of northwestern Australia. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 297–313 (this volume).Google Scholar
  108. Humphreys, W.F. & M.N. Feinberg. 1995. Food of the blind cave fishes of northwestern Australia. Rec.Western. Austr. Mus. 17: 29–33.Google Scholar
  109. Iliffe, T.M. 1991. Archialine fauna of the Galapagos islands. pp. 209–231. In: M.J. James (ed.) Galapagos Marine Invertebrates, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Iliffe, T.M. 1992. Anchialine cave biology. pp. 613–636. In: A.I. Camacho (ed.) The Natural History of Biospeleology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.Google Scholar
  111. Jaeger, F. & L. Waibel. 1921. Beiträge zur Landeskunde von Südwestafrika. E.S. Mittler, Berlin. 80 pp.Google Scholar
  112. Jankowska, M. & G. Thinés. 1982. A comparative study of group density in cave and epigean fishes. Behav. Proc. 7: 281–294.Google Scholar
  113. Kirby, R.F., K.W. Thompson & C. Hubbs. 1977. Karyotypic similarities between the Mexican and blind tetras. Copeia 1977: 578–580.Google Scholar
  114. Kottelat, M. 1988. Two species of cavefishes from northern Thailand in the genera Nemacheilus and Homaloptera (Osteichthyes: Homalopteridae). Rec. Aust. Mus. 40: 225–231.Google Scholar
  115. Kottelat, M. 1990. New species and populations of cave nemacheilines in south and south-east Asia (Osteichthyes, Balitoridae). Mém. Biospéleol. 17: 49–55.Google Scholar
  116. Kottelat, M. 1998. Homaloptera yuwonoi, a new species of hillstream loach from Borneo, with a new generic name for H. thamicola (Teleostei, Balitoridae). Ichthy. Expl. Freshw. 9: 267–272.Google Scholar
  117. Kottelat M. & F. Bréhier. 1999. Troglocyclocheilus khammouanensis, a new genus and species of cave fish from the Khammouan karst, Laos (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). Rev. Suiss. Zool. 106: 347–359.Google Scholar
  118. Kottelat, M. & J. Géry. 1989. Nemacheilus troglocataractus, a new blind cavefish from Thailand. (Osteichthyes, Balitoridae). Spixiana 11: 273–277.Google Scholar
  119. Li, G.-L. 1989. On a new fish of the genus Sincyclocheilus from Guangxi, China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae: Barbinae). Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 14: 123–126 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  120. Lin, R.-D. & Z.-F. Luo. 1986. A new blind barbid fish (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from subterranean water in Guangxi, China. Acta Hydrobiol. Sin. 10: 380–382 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  121. Longley, G. & H. Karnei. 1979. Status of Trogloglanis pattersoni Eigenmann, the toothless blindcat and status of Satan eurystomus Hubbs and Bailey, the widemouth blindcat. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque. 54 pp.Google Scholar
  122. Lozano-Vilano, M. de L. & S. Contreras-Balderas. 1990. Astyanax armandoi, n. sp. from Chiapas, mexico (Pisces, Ostariophysi: Characidae) with a comparison to the nominal species A. aeneus and A. mexicanus. Universidad Y Ciencia 7: 95–107.Google Scholar
  123. Mai, D.Y. 1978. Identification of the fresh-water fishes of North Viet Nam. Scientific & Technology Publisher, Hanoi. 340 pp. (in Vietnamese).Google Scholar
  124. Marshall, N.B. & G.L. Thines. 1958. Studies of the brain, sense organs and light sensitivity of a blind cave fish (Typhlogarra widdowsoni) from Iraq. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 131: 441–456.Google Scholar
  125. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno & T. Yoshino 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai University Press, Tokyo. 437 pp.Google Scholar
  126. Mees, G.F. 1962. The subterranean freshwater fauna of Yardie Creek Station, North West Cape, Western Australia. J. R. Soc. West. Aust. 45: 24–32.Google Scholar
  127. Menon, A.G.K. 1950. On a remarkable blind siluroid fish of the family Clariidae from Kerala (India). Rec. Indian Mus. 48: 59–66.Google Scholar
  128. Menon, A.G.K. 1987. The fauna of India and the adjacent countries. Amra Press, Madras. 259 pp.Google Scholar
  129. Mercy, T.V.A., K.G. Padmanabhan & N.K. Pillai. 1982. Morphological studies on the oocytes of the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon. Zool. Anz. 209: 221–223.Google Scholar
  130. Mercy, T.V.A. & N.K. Pillai. 1984–5. The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai. Int. J. Speleol. 14: 1–4.Google Scholar
  131. Miller, R.R. 1984. Rhamdia reddelli, new species, the first blind pimelodid catfish from middle America, with a key to the Mexican species. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 20: 135–144.Google Scholar
  132. Miranda-Ribeiro, A. de 1907. Uma novidade ichthyologica. Kosmos 4: 1–3.Google Scholar
  133. Mitchell, R.W., W.H. Russel & W.R. Elliot. 1977. Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: environment, distribution, and evolution. Special Publications No. 12, Texas University Press, Lubbock. 89 pp.Google Scholar
  134. Nalbant, T.T. 1981. A study of the subterranean species of Lucifuga from Cuba, with the description of Lucifuga simile sp. n. (Pisces, Ophidiiformes, Bythitidae). Résult. Expéd. Biospéol. Cubano-Roum. Cuba 3: 185–190.Google Scholar
  135. Nalbant, T.T. & P.G. Bianco. 1998. The loaches of Iran and adjacent regions with description of six new species (Cobitoidea). Ital. J. Zool. 65: 109–123.Google Scholar
  136. Nalbant, T.T. & O. Linares. 1987. A study of a subterranean population of Trichomycterus guianense (Eigenmann, 1909) from Venezuela (Pisces, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). pp. 211–218. In: V. Decu (ed.) Fauna Hipogea y Hemiedáfica de Venezuela y de Otros Paises de América del Sur, Editura Academiei Republicii Sociliste Romania, Bucaresşti.Google Scholar
  137. Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the world. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 600 pp.Google Scholar
  138. Ng, H.H. & M. Kottelat.1998. Pterocryptis buccata, a new species of catfish from western Thailand (Teleostei: Siluridae) with epigean and hypogean populations. Ichth. Research 45: 393–399.Google Scholar
  139. Nielsen, J.G. 1974. Fish types in the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen. 115 pp.Google Scholar
  140. Norman, J.R. 1926. A new blind catfish from Trinidad, with a list of the blind cave-fishes. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 18: 324–331.Google Scholar
  141. Page, L.M. & B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes, North America, north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, Boston. 432 pp.Google Scholar
  142. Parin, N.V. 1983. Noemacheilus (Troglocobitis) starostini sp. n. (Osteichthyes, Cobitidae) a new blind fish from subterranean waters of Kugitangtau (Turkmenia). Zool. Zh. 62: 83–89 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  143. Parzefal, J. 2001. A review of morphological and behavioural changes in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana, from Tabasco, Mexico. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 263–275 (this volume).Google Scholar
  144. Pellegrin, J. 1929. L'Eilichthys microphthalmus Pellegrin, poisson cavernicole de la Somalie Italienne. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 363–364.Google Scholar
  145. Pérez, J.E. & G.E.E. Moodie. 1993. Genetic variation in a cave-dwelling Venezuelan catfish. Acta Cient. Venez. 44: 28–31.Google Scholar
  146. Pérez, A. & A. Viloria. 1994. Ancistrus galani n. sp. (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), with comments on biospeleological explorations in western Venezuela. Mém. Biospéléol. 21: 103–107.Google Scholar
  147. Peters, N. & G. Peters. 1973. Problemes genetiques de l'evolution regressive des cavernicoles. pp. 187–201. In: L.H. Schroeder (ed.) Genetics and Mutagenesis in Fish, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Petit, G. 1933. Un poisson cavernicole aveugle des eaux douces de Madagascar: Typhleotris madagascariensis gen. et sp. nov. C.R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 197: 347–348.Google Scholar
  149. Pfeiffer, W. 1966. Über die Vererbung des Schreckreaktion bei Astyanax (Characidae, Pisces). Z. Vererbungel. 98: 97–105.Google Scholar
  150. Pillai, R.S. & G.M. Yazdani. 1977. Ichthyo-fauna of Garo Hills, Meghalaya (India). Rec. Zool. Surv. India 72: 1–22.Google Scholar
  151. Poey, F. 1858. Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, 2 volumes. Barcina, Habana. 439 pp.Google Scholar
  152. Poisson, H. & H. Bessairie. 1947. Note sur une novelle station d'un poisson cavernicole aveugle du plateau calcaire Mahafaly. Bull. Acad. Malgache 26: 167–168.Google Scholar
  153. Poll, M. & N. LeLeup. 1965. Un poisson aveugle nouveau de la famille des Brotulidae provenant des îles Galapagos. Bull. Acad. R. Belg. (Cl. Sci.) 51: 464–474.Google Scholar
  154. Poly, W.J. 2001. Nontroglobitic fishes in Bruffey-Hills Creek Cave, West Virginia, and other caves worldwide. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 73–83 (this volume).Google Scholar
  155. Poulson, T.L. 1963. Cave adaptation in amblyopsid fishes. Amer. Midl. Nat. 70: 257–290.Google Scholar
  156. Proudlove, G.S. 2001. The conservation status of hypogean fishes. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 201–203 (this volume).Google Scholar
  157. Putnam, F.W. 1872. The blind fishes of the Mammoth Cave and their allies. Amer. Nat. 6: 6–30.Google Scholar
  158. Quoy, J.R.C. & J.P. Gaimard 1824. Description des poissons. pp. 1–328. In: L. De Freycinet (ed.) Voyage autour du Monde...exécuté sur les corvettes de L.M. ‘L'Uranie’ et ‘La Physicienne,’ pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820. Chez Pillet Aîné, Paris (7 volumes).Google Scholar
  159. Regan, C.T. 1913. A revision of the cyprinodont fishes of the subfamily Poeciliinae. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1913: 977–1018.Google Scholar
  160. Regan, C.T. 1940. The fishes of the gobiid genus Luciogobius Gill. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 5: 462–465.Google Scholar
  161. Reis, R.E. 1987. Ancistrus cryptophthalmus sp. n., a blind mailed catfish from the Tocantins River basin, Brazil (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae). Rev. Fr. Aquariol. 14: 81–84.Google Scholar
  162. Ringuelet, R.A. 1974. Breves comentarios sobre un pez cavernicola de Bolivia (Pygidium chaberti Durand, 1968). Neotropica 20: 65–66.Google Scholar
  163. Roberts, T.R. 1991. Barbus speleops newspecies, a blind cavefish from Tham Phu Khieo, Mekong Basin, Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 39: 103–109.Google Scholar
  164. Romero, A. 1983. Introgressive hybridization in a population of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces: Characidae) at La Cueva Chica. Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull. 45: 81–85.Google Scholar
  165. Romero, A. 1984. Behavior in an ‘intermediate’ population of the subterranean-dwelling characid Astyanax fasciatus. Env. Biol. Fish. 10: 203–207.Google Scholar
  166. Romero, A. 1985. Ontogenetic change in phototactic responses of surface and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces: Characidae). Copeia 1985: 1004–1011.Google Scholar
  167. Romero, A. 1987. Observaciones preliminares sobre la conducta en individuos cavernícolas de Trichomycterus conradi (Pisces: Trichomycteridae). Bol. Soc. Ven. Cienc. Nat. 41: 205–216.Google Scholar
  168. Romero, A. 1998a. Threatened fishes of the world: Amblyopsis rosae (Eigenmann, 1842) (Amblyopsidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 52: 434.Google Scholar
  169. Romero, A. 1998b. Threatened fishes of the world: Typhlichthys subterraneus (Girard, 1860) (Amblyopsidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 53: 74.Google Scholar
  170. Romero, A. 1998c. Threatened fishes of the world: Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni Cooper and Kuehne, 1974 (Amblyopsidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 53: 293–294.Google Scholar
  171. Romero, A. 2001. Scientists prefer them blind: the history of hypogean fish research. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 43–71 (this volume).Google Scholar
  172. Romero, A. & L. Bennis. 1998. Threatened fishes of the world: Amblyopsis spelaea De Kay, 1842 (Amblyopsidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 51: 420.Google Scholar
  173. Romero, A. & K. Benz. 2000. The unsung heroes of speleology. Nat. Speleol. Soc. News 58: 106, 126.Google Scholar
  174. Romero, A. & J.E. Creswell. 2000. In search of the elusive ‘eyeless’ cave fish Trinidad, W.I. Nat. Speleol. Soc. News 58: 282–283.Google Scholar
  175. Romero, A. & A. McLeran. 2000. Threatened fishes of the world: Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Böhlke, 1965 (Characidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 57: 270.Google Scholar
  176. Romero, A. & K.M. Paulson. 2001. Humboldt's alleged cave fish from Ecuador. J. Spelean Hist. (in press).Google Scholar
  177. Romero, A. & P.B.S. Vanselow. 2000a. Threatened fishes of the world: Milyeringa veritas Whitley, 1945 (Eleotridae). Env. Biol. Fish. 57: 36.Google Scholar
  178. Romero, A. & P.B.S. Vanselow. 2000b. Threatened fishes of the world: Ophisternon candidum (Mees 1962) (Synbranchidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 58: 214.Google Scholar
  179. Sabino, J. & E. Trajano. 1997. A new species of blind armoured catfish, genus Ancistrus, from caves of Bodoquena region, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwestern Brazil (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Ancistrinae). Rev. Fr. Aquariol. 24: 73–78.Google Scholar
  180. Sadoglu, P. 1957. Mendelian inheritance in the hybrids between the Mexican blind cave fishes and their overground ancestor. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges., Graz 1957: 432–439.Google Scholar
  181. Sbordoni, M.C., E. De Matthaeis, M. Mattoccia, R. Berti & V. Sbordoni. 1996. Genetic variability and differentiation of hypogean cyprinid fishes from Somalia. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 34: 75–84.Google Scholar
  182. Schemmel, C. 1967. Vergleichende Untersuchungen an den Hautsinnesorganen ober – und unterirdisch Lebender Astyanax– Formen, ein Beitrag zur evolution der Cavernicolen. Z. Morph. Tiere 61: 255–316.Google Scholar
  183. Schemmel, C. 1980. Studies on the genetics of feeding behaviour in the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus f. Anoptichthys. An example of apparent monofactorial inheritance by polygenes. Z. Tierpsychol. 53: 9–22.Google Scholar
  184. Schultz, L.P. 1949. A further contribution to the ichthyology of Venezuela. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 99: 1–211.Google Scholar
  185. Silas, E.G. & E. Dawson. 1961. Amphipnous indicus, a new synbranchoid eel from India, with a redefinition of the genus and a synopsis to the species of Amphipnous Müller. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 58: 366–378.Google Scholar
  186. Silfvergrip, A.M.C. 1996. A systematic revision of the neotropical catfish genus Rhamdia (Teleostei, Pimelodidae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm. 156 pp.Google Scholar
  187. Singh, D.F. & G.M. Yazdani. 1993. Studies on the ichthyofauna of Nasik District, Maharashtra, India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India 90: 195–201.Google Scholar
  188. Sket, B. 1988. Speleobiological investigations in the Colombian Andes. Vest. Leningr. Univ. Ser. 3, Biol. 36: 53–62.Google Scholar
  189. Smirnov, S. 1983. A blind cave loach from southwestern Asia, Noemacheilus starostini Parin. Trop. Fish Hobb. (3): 54–58.Google Scholar
  190. Steindachner, F. 1863. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Sciaenoiden Brasiliens und der Cyprinodonten Mejicos. Sitzungsber. Math.-Naturwiss., Classe K. Akad. Wiss., Wien 48: 162–185.Google Scholar
  191. Talwar, P.K. & A.G. Jhingran. 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., Calcutta. 2 volumes, 1158 pp.Google Scholar
  192. Thinès, G. 1953. EsRecherches experimentales sur la photosensibilité du poisson aveugle Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr. Ann. Soc. Roy. Zool. Belg. 84: 231–265.Google Scholar
  193. Thinès, G. 1969. L'évolution régressive des poissons cavernicoles et abyssaux. Masson et Cie., Paris. 394 pp.Google Scholar
  194. Thinès G. & J.-M. Legrain. 1973. Effects de la substance d'alarme sur le comportament des poissons cavernicoles Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae) et Caecobarbus geeretsi (Cyprinidae). Ann. Speleol. 28: 291–297.Google Scholar
  195. Tomiyama, I. 1936. Gobiidae of Japan. Japan. J. Zool. 7: 37–112.Google Scholar
  196. Torii, H. 1951. Die Hohleen-Vertebraten aus Japan und seinen Nachbarschaften. Annot. Zool. Japan. 24: 170–179.Google Scholar
  197. Trajano, E. 1991. The agonistic behaviour of Pimelodella kronei, a troglobitic catfish from southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Pimelodidade). Behav. Proc. 23: 113–124.Google Scholar
  198. Trajano, E. 1997a. Food and reproduction of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, cave catfish from south-eastern Brazil. J. Fish Biol. 51: 53–63.Google Scholar
  199. Trajano, E. 1997b.Population ecology of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, a cave catfish from eastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Env. Biol. Fish. 50: 357–369.Google Scholar
  200. Trajano, E. 1997c. Synopsis of Brazilian troglomorphic fishes. Mem. Biospeleol. 24: 119–126.Google Scholar
  201. Trajano, E. 2001a. Ecology of subterranean fishes: an overview. Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 133–160 (this volume).Google Scholar
  202. Trajano, E. 2001b. Habitat and population data of troglobitic armoured cave catfishes, Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis, 1987, from central Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Env. Biol. Fish. 62: 195–200 (this volume).Google Scholar
  203. Trajano, E. & M.C.C. de Pinna. 1996. A new cave species of Trichomycterus from eastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae). Rev. Fr. Aquariol. 23: 85–90.Google Scholar
  204. Trajano, E. & A.M. Souza. 1994. The behavior of Ancistrus cryptophthalmus, an armoured blind catfish from caves of central Brazil, with notes on synopic Trichomycterus sp. (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Trichomycteridae). Mém. Biospeléol. 21: 151–159.Google Scholar
  205. Trewavas, E. 1936. Dr. Karl Jordan's expedition to South-West Africa and Angola: the fresh-water fishes. Novit. Zool. 40: 63–74.Google Scholar
  206. Trewavas, E. 1955. A blind fish from Iraq, related to Garra. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 8: 551–555.Google Scholar
  207. Triques, M.L. 1996. Eigenmannia vicentespelaea, a new species of cave dwelling electrogenic neotropical fish (Ostariophisi: Gymnotiformes: Sternopygidae). Rev. Fr. Aquariol. 23: 1–4.Google Scholar
  208. Uéno, S.-I. & Y. Morimoto. 1970. The fauna of the insular lava caves in west Japan. I. General account. Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus (Japan) 13: 443–454.Google Scholar
  209. Valenciennes, A. in G. Cuvier & A. Valenciennes. 1846. Histoire naturelle des poissons, Tome dix-huitième, Suite du livre dix-huitième, Cyprinoïdes. Livre dix-neuvième, Des Ésoces ou Lucioïdes 18: 1–505.Google Scholar
  210. Vinciguerra, D. 1924. Descrizione di un ciprinide cieco proveniente dalla Somalia Italiana (Description of a blind cyprinid from the Italian Somalia). Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genoa 51: 239–243.Google Scholar
  211. Walsh, S.J. & C.R. Gilbert. 1995. New species of troglobitic catfish of the genus Prietella (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) from northeastern México. Copeia 1995: 850–861.Google Scholar
  212. Weber, A. 2000. Fish and amphibia. pp. 109–132. In: H. Wilkens, D.C. Culver & W.F. Humphrey (ed.) Subterranean Ecosystems, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  213. Weber, A. & H. Wilkens. 1998. Rhamdia macuspanensis: a new species of troglobitic pimelodid catfish (Siluriformes; Pimelodidae) from a cave in Tabasco, Mexico. Copeia 1998: 998–1004.Google Scholar
  214. Whitley, G.P. 1945. New sharks and fishes from Western Australia, Part 2. Aust. Zool. 11: 1–42.Google Scholar
  215. Whitley, G.P. 1951a. A naturalist at north-west Cape. Austr. Mus. Mag. 5: 158–164.Google Scholar
  216. Whitley, G.P. 1951b. New fish names and records. Proc. R. Zool. Soc. N. S. W. 1949–50: 61–68.Google Scholar
  217. Wilkens, H. 1969. Beitrage zur Degeneration des Auges bei Cavernicolen, Genzahl und Manifestationsart. Zool. Anz. 180: 454–464.Google Scholar
  218. Wilkens, H. 1973. Über das phylogenetische Alter von Hohlentieren. Untersuchungen über die Cavernicole Susswasserfauna Yucatans. Sond. Z. Zool. Syst. Evol. 11: 49–60.Google Scholar
  219. Wilkens, H. 1993. A new species of Rhamdia (Pisces: Pimelodidae) from a cave in the Sierra de Zongolica (Veracruz, Mexico). Mitt. Hamb. Zool. Mus. Inst. 90: 375–378.Google Scholar
  220. Wilson, J.M. 1996. Conservation and ecology of a new blind fish Glossogobius ankaranensis from the Ankarana caves, Masagascar. Oryx: 30: 218–221.Google Scholar
  221. Yang, J.-X. 1990. Nemacheilinae (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). pp. 12–63. In: X. Chu & Y. Chen (ed.) The Fishes of Yunnan, China, Part 2. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  222. Yang, J.-X., Y.-R. Chen & J.-H. Lan. 1994. Protocobitis typhlops, a new genus and species of cave loach from China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 5: 91–96.Google Scholar
  223. Yang, G.-Y., F.-X. Yuan & Y.-M. Liao. 1986. A new blind Cobitidae fish from the subterranean water in Xiangxi, China. J. Huazhong Agric. Univ. 5: 219–223 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  224. Zhang, C. 1986. On the ecological adaptation and geographical distribution of the barbine fish Varicorhinus (Scaphestes) macrolepis. Acta Zool. Sin. 32: 266–272.Google Scholar
  225. Zheng, J. & J. Wang. 1990. Description of a new species of the genus Sinocyclocheilus from China (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 15: 251–254 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  226. Zhou, W. & G.-H. Cui. 1997. Fishes of the genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae) in the Yuanjiang (upper Red River) basin of Yunnan, China, with description of a new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshw. 8: 177–183.Google Scholar
  227. Zhu, S.-Q. 1989. The loaches of the subfamily Nemacheilinae in China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Jiangsu Science and Technology Publishing House, Nanjing. 150 pp. (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aldemaro Romero
    • 1
  • Kelly M. Paulson
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Studies Program and Department of BiologyMacalester CollegeSt. PaulU.S.A.
  2. 2.Environmental Studies Program and Department of BiologyMacalester CollegeSt. PaulU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations