Hydrobiologia

, Volume 451, Issue 1–3, pp 45–53 | Cite as

Feeding on survival-food: gelatinous plankton as a source of food for anchovies

  • H. Mianzan
  • M. Pájaro
  • G. Alvarez Colombo
  • A. Madirolas
Article

Abstract

The gelatinous zooplankton, composed by members of different phyla (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Tunicata), are usually neglected in most studies about energy transfer in the marine trophic web, and often it is assumed that such soft-bodied fauna are trophic `dead ends' in the food webs. In recent years, however, it has been shown that many fish species feed extensively on gelatinous zooplankton, while other species may feed on them occasionally when other food is scarce. We found that anchovies, Engraulis anchoita Hubbs & Marini, 1935, shoaled close to the Río de la Plata surface salinity front, where dense aggregations of the salp, Iasis zonaria (Pallas, 1774), were detected acoustically in May, 1994. Densities of non-gelatinous zooplankton were low at this interface, and anchovies fed on the salps. In this paper, we describe the environmental and biological conditions that led a normally planktivorous filter feeder E. anchoita to prey on gelatinous plankton.

Engraulis anchoita gut contents predation Iasis zonaria acoustics south-western Atlantic Ocean 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvariño, A., 1985. Predation in a plankton realm: mainly with reference to fish larvae. Inv. Mar. Cicimar 2: 1–122.Google Scholar
  2. Angelescu, V., 1981. Ecología trófica de la anchoíta del Mar Argentino (Engraulidae, Engraulis anchoita). Parte I. Morfología del sistema digestivo en relación con la alimentación. In Salinas, P. J. (ed.), Zoología Neotropical. Actas VIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Zoología, Mérida: 1317–1350.Google Scholar
  3. Angelescu, V., 1982. Ecología trófica de la anchoíta del Mar Argentino (Engraulidae, Engraulis anchoita). Parte II. Alimentación, comportamiento y relaciones tróficas en el ecosistema. Series Contribución del Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero, INIDEP, Mar del Plata. 409: 83 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Arai, M., 1988. Interactions of fish and pelagic coelenterates. Can. J. Zool. 66: 1913–1927.Google Scholar
  5. Ates, R. M., 1988. Medusivorous fishes, a review. Zool. Med. Leiden 62: 29–42.Google Scholar
  6. Capitanio, F. L., M. Pajaro & G. B. Esnal, 1997. Appendicularians (Chordata, Tunicata) in the diet of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) in the Argentine Sea. Sci. mar. 61: 9–15.Google Scholar
  7. Demer, D. & R. Hewitt, 1994. In situ target strength measurements of Antarctic zooplankton (Euphausia superba and Salpa thompsoni) at 120 Khz and 200 Khz, corroboration of scattering models, and a statistical technique for delineating species. CCAMLR WG-Krill 4: 22 pp.Google Scholar
  8. El Busto, C., J. I. Carreto, H. Benavides, H. Sancho, D. Cucchi Coleoni, M. Carignan & A. Fernandez, 1993. Paralytic shelfish toxicity in the Argentine Sea, 1990: an extraordinary year. In Smayda, T. J. & Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam: 229–233.Google Scholar
  9. Esnal, G. B., 1981. Thaliacea: Salpidae. In Boltovskoy, D. (ed.), Atlas del Zooplancton del Atlantico Sudoccidental. Publ. Esp. Inidep: 793–808.Google Scholar
  10. Esnal, G. B. & M. C. Daponte, 1999. Salpida. In Boltovskoy, D. (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 1423–1444.Google Scholar
  11. Fernandez Araoz, N., 1994. Estudios sobre la biomasa de Copepoda (Crustacea), con especial énfasis en Calanoida, del Atlántico Sudoccidental. Parte I y II. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Nac. Mar del Plata: 76 + 111 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Fernandez Araoz, N., G. M. Perez Seijas, M. D. Viñas & R. Reta, 1991. Asociaciones zooplanctónicas de la zona comÚn de pesca Argentino-uruguaya en relación con parámetros ambientales, primavera 1986. Frente Maritimo 8: 85–99.Google Scholar
  13. Folt, C. L. & C. W. Burns, 1999. Biological drivers of zooplankton patchiness. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 300–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Foote, K. G., H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. Maclennon & E. J. Simmonds, 1987. Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide. ICES Cooperative Res. Rep. 144: 69 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Forbes, S. T. & O. Nakken, 1972. Manual of Methods for Fisheries Resources Surveys and Appraisal. Part 2. The Use of Acoustic Instruments for Fish Detection and Abundance Estimation. Food and Agricultural Organization, Manual in Fisheries Science 5: 138 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Kashkina, A. A., 1986. Feeding of fishes on salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea). J. Ichthyol. 26: 57–64.Google Scholar
  17. Larson, R. J., 1986. Water content, organic content and carbon and nitrogen composition of medusae from the northeast Pacific. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 99: 107–120.Google Scholar
  18. Madin, L. P., C. M. Cetta & V. L. McAllister, 1981. Elemental and biochemical composition of salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Mar. Biol. 63: 217–226.Google Scholar
  19. Madin, L. P. & P. Kremer, 1995. Determination of the filter-feeding rates of salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea). ICES J. mar. Sci. 52: 583–595.Google Scholar
  20. Madin, L. P., J. E. Purcell & C. B. Miller, 1997. Abundance and grazing effects of Cyclosalpa bakeri in the subarctic Pacific. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 157: 175–183.Google Scholar
  21. Méndez, S., M. Gómez & G. Ferrari, 1997. Planktonic studies of the Río de la Plata and its oceanic front. In Wells, P. G. & G. R. Daborn (eds), The Río de la Plata. An Environmental Overview. An ECOPLATA Project background Rep., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax: 85–112.Google Scholar
  22. Mianzan, H. & P. F. S. Cornelius, 1999. Cubomedusae and scyphomedusae. In Boltovskoy, D. (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 513–559.Google Scholar
  23. Mianzan H. & R. Guerrero, 2000. Environmental patterns and biomass distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton. Three study cases in the Southwestern Atlantic. Sci. mar. 64(suppl.1): 215–224.Google Scholar
  24. Mianzan, H., N. Marí, B. Prenski & F. Sanchez, 1996. Fish predation on neritic ctenophores from the Argentine continental shelf: a neglected food resource? Fish. Res. 27: 69–79.Google Scholar
  25. Mianzan, H., M. Pájaro, L. Machinandiarena & F. Cremonte, 1997. Salps: possible vectors of toxic dinoflagellates? Fish. Res. 29: 193–197.Google Scholar
  26. Mianzan, H., C. Lasta, M. Acha, R. Guerrero, G. Macchi & C. Bremec, 2001. The Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina-Uruguay. In Seeliger, U., L. D de Lacerda & B. Kjerve (eds), Ecological Studies 44: Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin América, Springer-Verlag 13: 185–204.Google Scholar
  27. Mills, C. E., 1995. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores as planktivorous predators in changing global ecosystems. ICES J. mar. Sci. 52: 575–581.Google Scholar
  28. Mills, C. E., 2001. Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 55–68.Google Scholar
  29. Montoya, N., M. I. Reyero, R. Akselman, J. M. Franco & J. I. Carreto, 1998. Paralytic shelfish toxins in the anchovy Engraulis anchoita from the Argentinian coast. In Reguera, B., J. Blanco, M. L. Fernández & T. Wyatt (eds), Harmful Algae. Xunta de Galicia and COI (UNESCO): 72–73.Google Scholar
  30. Omori, M., 1969. Weight and chemical composition of some important oceanic zooplankton in the North Pacific Ocean. Mar. Biol. 3: 4–10.Google Scholar
  31. Purcell, J. E., 1991. A review of cnidarians and ctenophores feeding on competitors in the plankton. Hydrobiologia 216/217: 335–342.Google Scholar
  32. Purcell, J. E., 1997. Pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores as predators: selective predation, feeding rates and effects on prey populations. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., Paris 73: 125–137.Google Scholar
  33. Purcell, J. E. & M. N. Arai, 2001. Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 27–44.Google Scholar
  34. Purcell, J. E., T. A. Shiganova, M. B. Decker & E. D. Houde, 2001. The ctenophore Mnemiopsis in native and exotic habitats: U. S. estuaries versus the Black Sea basin. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 145–176.Google Scholar
  35. Stanton, T. K., D. Chu & P. H. Wiebe, 1996. Acoustic scattering characteristics of several zooplankton groups. ICES J. mar. Sci. 53: 289–295.Google Scholar
  36. Stanton, T. K., P. H. Wiebe, D. Chu, M. C. Benfield, L. Scanlon, L. Martin & R. L. Eastwood, 1994. On acoustic estimates of zooplankton biomass. ICES J. mar. Sci. 51: 505–512.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Mianzan
    • 1
  • M. Pájaro
    • 2
  • G. Alvarez Colombo
    • 2
  • A. Madirolas
    • 2
  1. 1.CONICET; INIDEPMar del PlataArgentina
  2. 2.INIDEPMar del PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations