Hydrobiologia

, Volume 451, Issue 1–3, pp 121–129 | Cite as

The impact of El Niño events on populations of mesopelagic hydromedusae

  • Kevin A. Raskoff
Article

Abstract

For over 10 years, the midwater ecology group at MBARI has compiled video and accompanying physical data with the ROV Ventana operating in mesopelagic depths of Monterey Bay, CA in order to elucidate patterns in midwater ecology. Two El Niño events have occurred during this time period, in 1991–92 and in 1997–98. The oceanographic metric of spiciness combines temperature and salinity data into one sensitive measurement. Although temperature and salinity measurements alone revealed no clear patterns, clear signals of spiciness were observed that corresponded to water mass intrusions into the deep waters of the bay during the two El Niño events. During these events, some seldom-seen species were observed in high numbers in the midwater, while historically common species became rare. During non-El Niño years, the leptomedusa Mitrocoma cellularia(A. Agassiz, 1865) was common in the surface waters (0–50 m) of Monterey Bay, but it was not abundant at depth, while the trachymedusa Colobonema sericeum Vanhöffen, 1902 was found in relatively high numbers at mesopelagic depths. During the last two El Niño events, M. cellulariawas observed in higher numbers at mesopelagic depths, whereas C. sericeum was scarce. M. cellularia was found in a wider range of temperatures, salinities, and dissolved oxygen values than was C. sericeum. Transport and tolerance hypotheses are proposed to explain differences in the presence and numerical density of the medusae.

Cnidaria blooms Mitrocoma Colobonema jellyfish ROV 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainley, D. G., R. L. Veit, S. G. Allen, L. B. Spear & P. Pyle, 1995. Variations in marine bird communities of the California Current, 1986–1994. CALCOFI Rep. 36: 72–77.Google Scholar
  2. Arai, M. N. & A. Brinckmann-Voss, 1980. Hydromedusae of British Columbia and Puget Sound. Can. Bull. Fish. aquat. Sci. 204: 1–192.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, K. M., J. F. Piatt, T. C. Royer, S. A. Macklin, R. K. Reed, M. Shima, R. C. Francis, A. B. Hollowed, D. A. Somerton, R.D. Brodeur, W. J. Ingraham, P. J. Anderson & W. S. Wooster, 1995. ENSO events in the northern Gulf of Alaska, and effects on selected marine fisheries. CALCOFI Rep. 36: 78–96.Google Scholar
  4. Barber, R. T. & F. P. Chavez, 1983. Biological consequences of El Niño. Science 222: 1203–1210.Google Scholar
  5. Barber, R. T. & F. P. Chavez, 1986. Ocean variability in relation to living resources during the 1982-83 El Niño. Nature 319: 279–285.Google Scholar
  6. Breaker, L. C. & W. W. Broenkow, 1994. The circulation of Monterey Bay and related processes. Oceanogr. mar. Biol. 32: 1–64.Google Scholar
  7. Chavez, F. P., 1996. Forcing and biological impacts of onset of the 1992 El Niño in central California. Geo. Phys. Res. Let. 23: 265–268.Google Scholar
  8. Chavez, F. P., P. G. Strutton, G. E. Friederich, R. A. Feely, G. C. Feldman, D. G. Foley & M. J. McPhaden, 1999. Biological and chemical response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the 1997–98 El Niño. Science 286: 2126–2131.Google Scholar
  9. Culik, B. M. & G. Luna-Jorquera, 1997. Satellite tracking of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern Chile. Mar. Biol. 128: 547–556.Google Scholar
  10. Dawson, M. N., L. E. Martin & L. K. Penland, 2001. Jellyfish swarms, tourists and the Christ-child. Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 131–144.Google Scholar
  11. Dorn, M. W., 1995. The effects of age composition and oceanographic conditions on the annual migration of Pacific whiting, Merluccius productus. CALCOFI Rep. 36: 97–105.Google Scholar
  12. Flament, P., 1986. Subduction and fine structure associated with upwelling filaments. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
  13. Gibbs, H. L. & P. R. Grant, 1987. Ecological consequences of an exceptionally strong El Niño event on Darwin's finches. Ecology 68: 1735–1746.Google Scholar
  14. Glynn, P. W., 1988. El Niño-Southern Oscillation 1982–1983: nearshore population, community and ecosystem responses. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 19: 309–345.Google Scholar
  15. Graham, W. M., 1994. The physical oceanography and ecology of upwelling shadows. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz.Google Scholar
  16. Hammann, M. G., J. S. P. Nayar & O. S. Nishizaki, 1995. The effects of the 1992 El Niño on the fisheries of Baja California, Mexico. CALCOFI Rep. 36: 127–133.Google Scholar
  17. Jackett, D. R. & T. J. McDougall, 1985. An oceanographic variable for the characterization of intrusions and water masses. Deep Sea Res. 32: 1195–1207.Google Scholar
  18. Keckler, D., 1995. Surfer for Windows, Version 6 User's Guide. Golden Software, Inc., Golden, CO, 480 p.Google Scholar
  19. Kramp, P. L., 1968. The hydromedusae of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Sect. II and III. Dana-Rep. Carlsberg Found. 72: 1–200.Google Scholar
  20. Laurie, W. A., 1990. Population biology of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus). I. Changes in fecundity related to a population crash. J. anim. Ecol. 59: 515–528.Google Scholar
  21. Lenarz, W. H., F. B. Schwing, D. A. Ventresca, F. Chavez & W.M. Graham, 1995. Explorations of El Niño events and associated biological population dynamics off central California. CALCOFI Rep. 36: 106–119.Google Scholar
  22. Lynn, R. J., F. B. Schwing & T. L. Hayward, 1995. The effect of the 1991–1993 ENSO on the California current system. CALCOFI Rep. 36: 57–71.Google Scholar
  23. Mills, C. E., 1983. Vertical migration and diel activity patterns of hydromedusae: studies in a large tank. J. Plankton Res. 5: 619–635.Google Scholar
  24. Mills, C. E., 1993. Natural mortality in NE Pacific coastal hydromedusae: Grazing predation, wound healing and senescence. Bull. mar. Sci. 53: 194–203.Google Scholar
  25. Mills, C. E., 1995. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores as planktivorous predators in changing global ecosystems. ICES J. mar. Sci 52: 575–581.Google Scholar
  26. Pennington, J. T. & F. P. Chavez, 2000. Seasonal fluctuations of temperature, salinity, nitrate, chlorophyll and primary production at station H3/M1 over 1989–1996 in Monterey Bay, California. Deep Sea Res. II 47: 947–973.Google Scholar
  27. Purcell, J. E., J. R. White, D. A. Nemazie & D. A. Wright, 1999. Temperature, salinity and food effects on asexual reproduction and abundance of the scyphozoan Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 180: 187–196.Google Scholar
  28. Purcell, J. E., D. L. Breitburg, M. B. Decker, W. M. Graham, M.J. Youngbluth & K. A. Raskoff, 2001. Pelagic cnidarians and 0ctenophores in low dissolved oxygen environments. In Rabalais, N. N. & R. E. Turner (eds), Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for Living Resources and Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union. Coastal and Estuar. Stud. 58: 77–100.Google Scholar
  29. Ramp, S. R., J. L. McClean, C. A. Collins & A. J. Semtner, 1997. Observations and modeling of the 1991–1992 El Niño signal off central California. J. Geophys. Res. 102: 5553–5582.Google Scholar
  30. Raskoff, K. A., 1998. Distributions and trophic interactions of mesopelagic hydromedusae in Monterey Bay, CA: In situ studies with the MBARI ROVs Ventana and Tiburon. Ocean Sciences-San Diego, CA. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. (abstracts) 79: OS1.Google Scholar
  31. Robison, B. H., 1993. Midwater research methods with MBARI's ROV. Mar. Tech. Soc. Jour. 26: 32–39.Google Scholar
  32. Robison, B. H., K. R. Reisenbichler, R. E. Sherlock, J. M. B. Silguero & F. P. Chavez, 1998. Seasonal abundance of the siphonophore, Nanomia bijuga, in Monterey Bay. Deep Sea Res. II 45: 1741–1751.Google Scholar
  33. Schlining, B., 1999. Seasonal intrusions of equatorial waters in Monterey Bay and their effects on mesopelagic animal distributions. Masters thesis, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.Google Scholar
  34. Schmitt, R. W., 1999. Spice and the demon. Science 283: 498–499.Google Scholar
  35. Silguero, J. M. B. & B. H. Robison, 2000. Seasonal abundance and vertical distribution of mesopelagic calycophoran siphonophores in Monterey Bay, CA. J. Plankton Res. 22: 1139–1153.Google Scholar
  36. SPSS, Inc., 1998. SigmaPlot 5.0 User's Guide. SPSS Science Marketing Department, Chicago, IL, 448 p.Google Scholar
  37. Widder, E. A., S. A. Bernstein, D. F. Bracher, J. F. Case, K. R. Reisenbichler, J. J. Torres & B. H. Robison, 1989. Bioluminescence in the Monterey Submarine canyon: image analysis of video recordings from a mid-water submersible. Mar. Biol. 100: 541–551.Google Scholar
  38. Wrobel, D. & C. Mills, 1998. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates: a Guide to the Common Gelatinous Animals. Sea Challengers/ Monterey bay Aquarium, Monterey, 108 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Zar, J. H., 1996. Biostatistical Analysis. Simon and Schuster, Upper Saddle River, 662 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin A. Raskoff
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Monterey Bay Aquarium Research InstituteMoss LandingU.S.A.
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations