Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 371–383 | Cite as

Pediatric Obesity

  • Jack Adam Yanovski
child obesity diagnosis complications prevalence 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Himes JH, Dietz WH. Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services: Recommendations from an expert committee. The Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:307-316.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dietz WH, Robinson TN. Use of the body mass index (BMI) as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents: Periods of risk in childhood for the development of adult obesity--what do we need to learn? J Pediatr 1998;132:191-193.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dietz WH, Bellizzi MC. Introduction: The use of body mass index to assess obesity in children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:123S-125S.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Killeen J, Vanderburg D, Harlan WR. Application of weight-height ratios and body indices to juvenile populations--the National Health Examination Survey Data. J Chronic Dis 1978;31:529-537.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deurenberg P, Weststrate JA, Seidell JC. Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: Age-and sex-specific prediction formulas. Br J Nutr 1991;65:105-114.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kotchen JM, McKean HE, Kotchen TA. Blood pressure of young mothers and their children after hypertension in adolescent pregnancy: Six-to nine-year follow-up. Am J Epidemiol 1982;115:861-867.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clarke WR, Woolson RF, Lauer RM. Changes in ponderosity and blood pressure in childhood: The Muscatine Study. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:195-206.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johnson AL, Cornoni JC, Cassel JC, Tyroler HA, Heyden S, Hames CG. Influence of race, sex and weight on blood pressure behavior in young adults. Am J Cardiol 1975;35:523-530.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gidding SS, Bao W, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Effects of secular trends in obesity on coronary risk factors in children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr 1995;127:868-874.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morrison JA, Laskarzewski PM, Rauh JL, Brookman R, Mellies M, Frazer M, Khoury P, deGroot I, Kelly K, Glueck CJ. Lipids, lipoproteins, and sexual maturation during adolescence: The Princeton maturation study. Metabolism 1979;28:641-649.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Higgins MW, Keller JB, Metzner HL, Moore FE, Ostrander LD, Jr. Studies of blood pressure in Tecumseh, Michigan. II. Antecedents in childhood of high blood pressure in young adults. Hypertension 1980;2:117-123.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Must A. Morbidity and mortality associated with elevated body weight in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:445S-447S.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, Wei R, Mei Z, Curtin LR, Roche AF, Johnson CL. CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data 2000;1-27.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lazarus R, Baur L, Webb K, Blyth F. Body mass index in screening for adiposity in children and adolescents: systematic evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:500-506.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sardinha LB, Going SB, Teixeira PJ, Lohman TG. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm girth for obesity screening in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1090-1095.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Must A, Dallal GE, Dietz WH. Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ht2) and triceps skinfold thickness [published erratum appears in Am J Clin Nutr 1991 Nov;54(5):773]. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:839-846.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frisancho AR. Anthropometric Standards for the Assessment of Growth and Nutritional Status. 4th ed. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garn SM, Clark DC. Trends in fatness and the origins of obesity Ad Hoc Committee to Review the Ten-State Nutrition Survey. Pediatrics 1976;57:443-456.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Troiano RP, Flegal KM. Overweight children and adolescents: description, epidemiology, and demographics. Pediatrics 1998;101:497-504.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Valdez RA, Williamson DF, Berenson GS. Secular increases in relative weight and adiposity among children over two decades: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 1997;99:420-426.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumanyika S. Ethnicity and obesity development in children. Ann NY Acad Sci 1993;699:81-92.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Esposito-Del Puente A, Contaldo F, De Filippo E, Scalfi L, Di Maio S, Franzese A, Valerio G, Rubino A. High prevalence of overweight in a children population living in Naples (Italy). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20:283-286.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hughes JM, Li L, Chinn S, Rona RJ. Trends in growth in England and Scotland, 1972 to 1994. Arch Dis Child 1997;76:182-189.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lehingue Y, Picot MC, Millot I, Fassio F. Increase in the prevalence of obesity among children aged 4–5 years in a French district between 1988 and 1993. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 1996;44:37-46.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moreno LA, Sarria A, Fleta J, Rodriguez G, Bueno M. Trends in body mass index and overweight prevalence among children and adolescents in the region of Aragon (Spain) from 1985 to 1995. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:925-931.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dietz WH, Jr., Gortmaker SL. Factors within the physical environment associated with childhood obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:619-624.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Must A, Strauss RS. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23Suppl 2:S2-11.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stunkard A, Burt V. Obesity and the body image. II. Age at onset of disturbances in the body image. Am J Psychiatry 1967;123:1443-1447.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klesges RC, Haddock CK, Stein RJ, Klesges LM, Eck LH, Hanson CL. Relationship between psychosocial functioning and body fat in preschool children: a longitudinal investigation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992;60:793-796.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Perrin JM, Sobol AM, Dietz WH. Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1008-1012.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strauss RS. Childhood obesity and self-esteem. Pediatrics 2000;105:e15.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bruch H. Emotional aspects of obesity in children. Pediatr Ann 1975;4:91-99.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Guo SS, Roche AF, Chumlea WC, Gardner JD, Siervogel RM. The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35y. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:810-819.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mossberg HO. 40-year follow-up of overweight children. Lancet 1989;2:491-493.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stark O, Atkins E, Wolff OH, Douglas JW. Longitudinal study of obesity in the National Survey of Health and Development. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:13-17.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Whitaker RC, Pepe MS, Wright JA, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity. Pediatrics 1998;101:E5.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Borjeson M. Overweight children. Acta Paediatr 1962;51:2-76.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Charney E, Goodman HC, McBride M, Lyon B, Pratt R. Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults? N Engl J Med 1976;295:6-9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Garn SM. Continuities and changes in fatness from infancy through adulthood. Curr Probl Pediatr 1985;15:1-47.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997;337:869-873.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hoffmans MD, Kromhout D, de Lezenne Coulander C. The impact of body mass index of 78,612 18-year-old Dutch men on 32-year mortality from all causes. J Clin Epidemiol 1988;41:749-756.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1350-1355.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nguyen TT, Keil MF, Russell DL, Pathomvanich A, Uwaifo GI, Sebring NG, Reynolds JC, Yanovski JA. Relation of acanthosis nigricans to hyperinsulinemia and insulin sensitivity in overweight African American and white children. J Pediatr 2001;138:474-480.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Palasciano G, Portincasa P, Vinciguerra V, Velardi A, Tardi S, Baldassarre G, Albano O. Gallstone prevalence and gallbladder volume in children and adolescents: an epidemiological ultrasonographic survey and relationship to body mass index. Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84:1378-1382.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, Linzer M, deGruy FV, 3rd, Hahn SR, Brody D, Johnson JG. Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study. Jama. 1994;272:1749-1756.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Barlow SE, Dietz WH. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics 1998;102:E29.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yanovski JA, Yanovski SZ. Recent advances in basic obesity research. Jama 1999;282:1504-1506.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vaisse C, Clement K, Durand E, Hercberg S, Guy-Grand B, Froguel P. Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and heterogeneous cause of morbid obesity. J Clin Invest 2000;106:253-262.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Farooqi IS, Yeo GS, Keogh JM, Aminian S, Jebb SA, Butler G, Cheetham T, O'Rahilly S. Dominant and recessive inheritance of morbid obesity associated with melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency. J Clin Invest 2000;106:271-279.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Obarzanek E, Hunsberger SA, Van Horn L, Hartmuller VV, Barton BA, Stevens VJ, Kwiterovich PO, Franklin FA, Kimm SY, Lasser NL, Simons-Morton DG, Lauer RM. Safety of a fat-reduced diet: The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Pediatrics 1997;100:51-59.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Epstein LH, McCurley J, Valoski A, Wing RR. Growth in obese children treated for obesity. Am J Dis Child 1990;144:1360-1364.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robinson TN. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 1999;282:1561-1567.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ferguson MA, Gutin B, Le NA, Karp W, Litaker M, Humphries M, Okuyama T, Riggs S, Owens S. Effects of exercise training and its cessation on components of the insulin resistance syndrome in obese children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:889-895.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Epstein LH, Valoski A, Wing RR, McCurley J. Ten-year follow-up of behavioral, family-based treatment for obese children. Jama 1990;264:2519-2523.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mellin LM, Slinkard LA, Irwin CE, Jr. Adolescent obesity intervention: validation of the SHAPEDOWN program. J Am Diet Assoc 1987;87:333-338.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Thomas-Dobersen DA, Butler-Simon N, Fleshner M. Evaluation of a weight management intervention program in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 1993;93:535-540.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Epstein LH. Family-based behavioural intervention for obese children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20:S14-21.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Epstein LH, Valoski A, Wing RR, McCurley J. Ten-year outcomes of behavioral family-based treatment for childhood obesity. Health Psychol 1994;13:373-383.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Epstein LH, Valoski AM, Kalarchian MA, McCurley J. Do children lose and maintain weight easier than adults: a comparison of child and parent weight changes from six months to ten years. Obes Res 1995;3:411-417.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Figueroa-Colon R, von Almen TK, Franklin FA, Schuftan C, Suskind RM. Comparison of two hypocaloric diets in obese children. Am J Dis Child 1993;147:160-166.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Anon. Physicians' Desk Reference. 55 ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics, 2001.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmack G, Lawrence E, Cheetham CH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, McCamish MA, O'Rahilly S. Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N Engl J Med 1999;341:879-884.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    McCann S, McDuffie J, Nicholson J, Sastry L, Calis K, Yanovski J. A pilot study of the efficacy of orlistat in overweight adolescents. Obese Res 2000;8:58S.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Roan S. Weight-loss studies test medications as treatments for childhood obesity, in The Charlotte Obeserver 2001, Charlotte, NC.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Molnar D, Torok K, Erhardt E, Jeges S. Safety and efficacy of treatment with an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. The first doubleblind placebo-controlled pilot study in adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:1573-1578.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lustig R, Rose S, Pitukcheewanont P, Broome D, Blackwell A, Burghen G. Metformin effects on weight and insulin secretion in adolescent females with obesity/hyperinsulinemia/ancanthosis nigricans. Twelfth Annual Investigators Meeting of the National Cooperative Growth Study 1999;12:13.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Freemark M, Bursey D. The effects of metformin on body mass index and glucose tolerance in obese adolescents with fasting hyperinsulinemia and a family history of type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics 2001;107:e55.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lustig RH, Hinds PS, Smith KR, Christensen RK, Kaste SC, Mackert PW, Schreiber RE, Rai SY, Lensing SW, Xiong X. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of octreotide in pediatric hypothalamic obesity. LWPES/ESPE 6th Joint Meeting 2001.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lustig RH, Rose SR, Burghen GA, Velasquez-Mieyer P, Broome DC, Smith K, Li H, Hudson MM, Heideman RL, Kun LE. Hypothalamic obesity caused by cranial insult in children: Altered glucose and insulin dynamics and reversal by a somatostatin agonist. J Pediatr 1999;135:162-168.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    White JJ, Cheek D, Haller JA, Jr. Small bowel bypass is applicable for adolescents with morbid obesity. Am Surg 1974;40:704-708.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Randolph JG, Weintraub WH, Rigg A. Jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity in adolescents. J Pediatr Surg 1974;9:341-345.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Soper RT, Mason EE, Printen KJ, Zellweger H. Gastric bypass for morbid obesity in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Surg 1975;10:51-58.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Anderson AE, Soper RT, Scott DH. Gastric bypass for morbid obesity in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Surg 1980;15:876-881.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Organ CH, Jr., Kessler E, Lane M. Long-term results of jejunoileal bypass in the young. Am Surg 1984;50:589-593.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Strauss RS, Bradley LJ, Brolin RE. Gastric bypass surgery in adolesecnts with morbid obesity. J Pediatr 2001;138:499-504.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Greenstein RJ, Rabner JG. Is adolescent gastric-restrictive antiobesity surgery warranted? Obes Surg 1995;5:138-144.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Caprio S, Tamborlane WV. Metabolic impact of obesity in childhood. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1999;28:731-747.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kelsey JL, Acheson RM, Keggi KJ. The body build of patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Am J Dis Child 1972;124:276-281.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilcox PG, Weiner DS, Leighley B. Maturation factors in slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Pediatr Orthop 1988;8:196-200.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Loder RT, Aronson DD, Greenfield ML. The epidemiology of bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. A study of children in Michigan. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1993;75:1141-1147.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dietz WH, Jr., Gross WL, Kirkpatrick JA, Jr. Blount disease (tibia vara): another skeletal disorder associated with childhood obesity. J Pediatr 1982;101:735-743.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Scott IU, Siatkowski RM, Eneyni M, Brodsky MC, Lam BL. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in children and adolescents. Am J Ophthalmol 1997;124:253-255.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Corbett JJ, Savino PJ, Thompson HS, Kansu T, Schatz NJ, Orr LS, Hopson D. Visual loss in pseudotumor cerebri. Follow-up of 57 patients from five to 41 years and a profile of 14 patients with permanent severe visual loss. Arch Neurol 1982;39:461-474.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Unger R, Kreeger L, Christoffel KK. Childhood obesity. Medical and familial correlates and age of onset. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1990;29:368-373.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mallory GB, Jr., Fiser DH, Jackson R. Sleep-associated breathing disorders in morbidly obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr 1989;115:892-897.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marcus CL, Curtis S, Koerner CB, Joffe A, Serwint JR, Loughlin GM. Evaluation of pulmonary function and polysomnography in obese children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol 1996;21:176-183.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Silvestri JM, Weese-Mayer DE, Bass MT, Kenny AS, Hauptman SA, Pearsall SM. Polysomnography in obese children with a history of sleep-associated breathing disorders. Pediatr Pulmonol 1993;16:124-129.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Honore LH. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in adolescent females: its connection with obestiy, parity, and oral contraceptive use-a retrospective study of 31 cases. Arch Surg 1980;115:62-64.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kinugasa A, Tsunamoto K, Furukawa N, Sawada T, Kusunoki T, Shimada N. Fatty liver and its fibrous changes found in simple obesity of children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1984;3:408-414.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tominaga K, Kurata JH, Chen YK, Fujimoto E, Miyagawa S, Abe I, Kusano Y. Prevalence of fatty liver in Japanese children and relationship to obesity. An epidemiological ultrasonographic survey. Dig Dis Sci 1995;40:2002-2009.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tazawa Y, Noguchi H, Nishinomiya F, Takada G. Effect of weight changes on serum transaminase activities in obese children. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1997;39:210-214.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tazawa Y, Noguchi H, Nishinomiya F, Takada G. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity in obese children. Acta Paediatr 1997;86:238-241.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Baldridge AD, Perez-Atayde AR, Graeme-Cook F, Higgins L, Lavine JE. Idiopathic steatohepatitis in childhood: a multicenter retrospective study. J Pediatr 1995;127:700-704.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Srinivasan SR, Bao W, Wattigney WA, Berenson GS. Adolescent overweight is associated with adult overweight and related multiple cardiovascular risk factors: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism 1996;45:235-240.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Daniels SR, Standiford D, Khoury PR, Zeitler P. Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. J Pediatr 1996;128:608-615.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Crawford JD, Osler DC. Body composition at menarche: The Frisch-Revelle hypothesis revisited. Pediatrics 1975;56:449-458.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gordon CM. Menstrual disorders in adolescents. Excess androgens and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999;46:519-543.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Ho KK, Waters MJ, Johnson ML, Lizarralde G. Dual defects in pulsatile growth hormone secretion and clearance subserve the hyposomatotropism of obesity in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;72:51-59.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Attia N, Tamborlane WV, Heptulla R, Maggs D, Grozman A, Sherwin RS, Caprio S. The metabolic syndrome and insulin-like growth factor I regulation in adolescent obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1467-1471.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    French SA, Story M, Perry CL. Self-esteem and obesity in children and adolescents: A literature review. Obes Res 1995;3:479-490.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Goldblatt PB, Moore ME, Stunkard AJ. Social Factors in obesity. JAMA 1965;192:1039-1044.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Figueroa-Colon R, Franklin FA, Lee JY, Aldridge R, Alexander L. Prevalence of obesity with increased blood pressure in elementary school-aged children. South Med J 1997;90:806-813.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lauer RM, Clarke WR. Childhood risk factors for high adult blood pressure: the Muscatine Study. Pediatrics 1989;84:633-641.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bray GA, Gallagher TF, Jr. Manifestations of hypothalamic obesity in man: a comprehensive investigation of eight patients and a reveiw of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1975;54:301-330.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack Adam Yanovski
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit on Growth and Obesity, Developmental Endocrinology BranchNational Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of HealthBethesda

Personalised recommendations