A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer
Objective: Association between animal products and prostate cancer have been observed in numerous observational studies, but it is not clear whether the high fat content of these foods or some other component accounts for these associations. We examine these associations among 51,529 men who contributed detailed dietary data.
Methods: Participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study completed a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1986, and subsequently in 1990 and 1994. Other data on potential risk factors were collected at baseline and in subsequent questionnaires during follow-up. Between 1986 and 1996, 1897 total cases of prostate cancer (excluding stage A1) and 249 metastatic cancers were identified. We used pooled logistic regression for analyses of diet and prostate cancer.
Results: Intakes of total meat, red meat, and dairy products were not associated with risk of total or advanced prostate cancer. An elevated risk for metastatic prostate cancer was observed with intake of red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1.6 for top vs. bottom quintile comparison, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–2.5); this association was slightly attenuated after controlling for saturated and α-linolenic fatty acids (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.88–2.5). Processed meats, bacon and beef, pork or lamb as a main dish each contributed to an elevated risk of metastatic prostate cancer. Dairy product intake increased risk of metastatic prostate cancer (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.91–2.2 for top vs. bottom quintile comparison), but no association remained after controlling for calcium and other fatty acids. A high intake in both red meat and dairy product was associated with a statistically significant two-fold elevation in risk of metastatic prostate cancer, compared to low intake of both products; however, most of the excess risk could be explained by known nutritional components of these foods.
Conclusions: Intakes of red meat and dairy products appear to be related to increased risk of metastatic prostate cancer. While known nutrients, such as calcium and fatty acids, may explain most of the dairy association observed, it appears that a portion of the risk of metastatic prostate cancer associated with red meat intake remains unexplained.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.American Cancer Society, Inc. (2000) Cancer Facts & Figures — 2000. Atlanta: ACA, Inc.Google Scholar
- 2.Kolonel L, Nomura, AMY, Cooney, RV (1999) Dietary fat and prostate cancer: current status. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 414–428.Google Scholar
- 3.Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson S-O, Yuen J, Adami H-O, Wolk A (1998) Dairy products, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 9: 559–566.Google Scholar
- 4.Giovannucci, E (1995) Epidemiologic characteristics of prostate cancer. Cancer 75(Suppl.): 1766–1777.Google Scholar
- 5.Giovannucci, E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, et al. (1998) Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 58: 442–447.Google Scholar
- 6.Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. (1993) A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85: 1571–1579.Google Scholar
- 7.Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Sacks FM, Grodstein F, Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ (1994) Prospective study of plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 281–286.Google Scholar
- 8.Harvei S, Bjerve KS, Tretli S, Jellum E, Robsahm TE, Vatten L (1997) Prediagnostic level of fatty acids in serum phospholipids: ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 71: 545–551.Google Scholar
- 9.De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, Ronco A, Mendilaharsu M (2000) Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9: 335–338.Google Scholar
- 10.Fiddler W, Pensabene JW, Gates RA (1997) N-Nitrosodibenzylamine in boncless ham processed in elastic rubber nettings. J AOAC Int 80: 353–358.Google Scholar
- 11.Knize M, Salmon CP, Pais P, Felton JS (1999) Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens. Adv Exp Med Biol 459: 179–193.Google Scholar
- 12.Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC (1992) Reproducibility and validity of a expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 135: 1114–1126.Google Scholar
- 13.Feskanich D, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al. (1993) Reproducibility and validity of food intake measurements from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 93: 790–796.Google Scholar
- 14.Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Speizer FE, et al. (1984) Test of the National Death Index. Am J Epidemiol 119: 837–839.Google Scholar
- 15.Willett WC (1990) Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 16.D'Agostino RB, Lee MLT, Belanger AJ, Cupples LA, Anderson K, Kannel WB (1990) Relation of pooled logistic regression to time dependent Cox regression analysis: The Framingham Heart Study. Stat Med 9: 1501–1515.Google Scholar
- 17.Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1997) Height, body weight, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6: 557–563.Google Scholar
- 18.Giovannucci E (1999) Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: a review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 317–331.Google Scholar
- 19.Veierød MB, Laake P, Thelle DS (1997) Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study of 25,708 Norweigan men. Int J Cancer 73: 634–638.Google Scholar
- 20.Schuurman, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Brants HA, Goldbohm RA (1999) Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer 86: 1019–1027.Google Scholar
- 21.Snowdon DA, Phillips RL, Choi W (1984) Diet, obesity, and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 120: 244–250.Google Scholar
- 22.Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE (1989) Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men. Cancer 64: 598–604.Google Scholar
- 23.Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Myers BC, Hirohata T (1994) Animal fat consumption and prostate cancer: a prospective study in Hawaii. Epidemiology 5: 276–282.Google Scholar
- 24.Hirayama T (1979) Epidemiology of prostate cancer with special reference to the role of diet. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 53: 149–155.Google Scholar
- 25.Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Schuman LM, et al. (1990) Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study. Cancer Res 50: 6836–6840.Google Scholar
- 26.Slattery M, Schumacher MC, West DW, Robinson LM, French TK (1990) Food consumption trends between adolescent and adult years and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 52: 752–757.Google Scholar
- 27.Peehl DM, Skowronski RJ, Leung GK, Wong ST, Stamey TA, Feldman D (1994) Antiproliferative effects of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 on primary cultures of human prostatic cells. Cancer Res 54: 805–810.Google Scholar
- 28.Bosland M, Oakley-Girvan I, Whittemore As (1999) Dietary fat, calories, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 489–490.Google Scholar
- 29.Stavric B, Matula TI, Klassen R, Downie RH (1995) Evaluation of hamburgers and hot dogs for the presence of mutagens. Food Chem Toxicol 33: 815–820.Google Scholar
- 30.Siu DC, Henshall A (1998) Ion chromatographic determination of nitrate and nitrite in meat products. J Chromatogr A 804: 157–160.Google Scholar