Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 295–306 | Cite as

Changes in tissue free amino acid concentrations in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., after consumption of a low ration

  • C.G. Carter
  • D.F. Houlihan
  • Z-Y. He


Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with an average weight of 411 ± 16 g were fed after a period of 7 days without food and the free amino acid concentrations in the pylorus, liver and white muscle measured before and at 3, 6, 9, 15 and 24 h after feeding. There were few significant postprandial changes in tissue free amino acid concentrations. In the white muscle, concentrations of six indispensable amino acids were significantly (p < 0.05) higher after 9 (Ile, Leu, Phe, Thr) or 15 h (Val, Met). Individual feed intake was measured and there were significant positive correlations between amino acid intake and amino acid concentrations in white muscle free pools for total amino acids (p < 0.001), total indispensable amino acids (p < 0.001) and individual indispensable amino acids (Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Val). These relationships were due to relatively low feed intake (0.28% body weight) that followed 7 days without feeding. The indispensable amino acid profile of the white muscle free pool was compared with that of standard proteins (the feed, whole body and white muscle), as well as with indispensable amino acids requirements. At different times one of two indispensable amino acids, Phe (at 0, 3, 6, 9, 15 h after feeding) or Trp (at 24 h after feeding), was present at the lowest relative concentrations compared to the other indispensable amino acids. This showed that although changes in tissue free amino acid concentrations following feeding were small the amino acid profile (relative concentrations) in the white muscle free pool changed. It is proposed that the lowest relative concentration of an indispensable amino acid in the white muscle free pool should be considered in relation to its potential to limit the efficiency of protein synthesis and retention.

Atlantic salmon essential amino acids feed intake free amino acid pools indispensable amino acids 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arzel, J., Metailler, R., Kerleguer, C., Delliou, H. and Guillaume, J. 1995. The protein requirement of brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry. Aquaculture. 130: 67-78.Google Scholar
  2. Austreng, E., Storebakken, T. and Asgard, T. 1987. Growth rate estimates for cultured Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Aquaculture. 60: 157-60.Google Scholar
  3. Berger, G.E., Lied, E. and Sveier, H. 1997. Nutrition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): the requirement and metabolic effect of arginine. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 117A: 501-509.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, G.E., Sveier, H. and Lied, E. 1998. Nutrition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): the requirement and metabolic effect of lysine. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 120A: 477-485.Google Scholar
  5. Buddington, R.K. and Diamond, J.M. 1987. Pyloris ceca of fish: a "new" absorptive organ. Am. J. Physiol. 252: G65-G76.Google Scholar
  6. Carter, C.G., He, Z.Y., Houlihan, D.F., McCarthy, I.D. and Davidson, I. 1995. Effect of feeding on tissue free amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissWalbaum). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 14: 153-164.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, C.G., Houlihan, D.F., Buchanan, B. and Mitchell, A.I. 1993. Protein-nitrogen flux and protein growth efficiency of individual Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 12: 305-315.Google Scholar
  8. Cowey, C.B. 1994. Amino acid requirements of fish: a critical appraisal of present values. Aquaculture. 124: 1-11.Google Scholar
  9. Cowey, C.B. 1995. Protein and amino acid requirements: A critique of methods. J. appl. Ichthy. 11: 199-204.Google Scholar
  10. Cowey, C.B. and Walton, M.J. 1989. Intermediary metabolism. In: Fish Nutrition. Second Edition pp. 259-329. Edited by J.E. Halver. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  11. Espe, M., Lied, E. and Torrissen, K.R. 1993. Changes in plasma and muscle free amino acids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during absorption of diets containing different amounts of hydrolysed cod muscle protein. Comp. Physiol. Biochem. 105A: 555-562.Google Scholar
  12. Fuller, M.F. and Garlick, P.J. 1994. Human amino acid requirements: Can the controversy be resolved. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 14: 217-241.Google Scholar
  13. Hart, P.J.B. and Pitcher, T.J. 1969. Field trials of fish marking using a jet inoculator. J. Fish Biol. 1: 383-385.Google Scholar
  14. Hudon, B. and de la Noue, J.1985. Amino acid digestibility in rainbow trout: influence of temperature, meal size and type of food. Journal of the World Mariculture Society. 16: 101-103.Google Scholar
  15. IAFMM 1970. Available amino acid content of fish meals. International Association of Fish Meal Manufacturers, Technical Bulletin Report No. 1, Number. London.Google Scholar
  16. Kaushik, S. and Luquet, P. 1977. Study of free amino acids in rainbow trout in relation to salinity changes. II. Muscle free amino acids during starvation. Ann. Hydrobiol. 8: 375-387.Google Scholar
  17. Kaushik, S.J. 1979. Application of a biochemical method for the estimation of amino acid needs in fish. Quantitative arginine requirements of rainbow trout in different salinities. In: World Symposium on Finfish Nutrition and Fishfeed Technology. Vol 1, pp. 197-207. Edited by J.E. Halver and K. Tiews. Heenemann GmgH and Co, Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. Kaushik, S.J., Fauconneau, B., Terrier, L. and Gras, J. 1988. Arginine requirement and status assessed by different biochemical indices in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneriR.). Aquaculture. 70: 75-95.Google Scholar
  19. Kaushik, S.J. and Luquet, P. 1979. Influence of dietary amino acid patterns on the free amino acid contents of blood and muscle of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneriiR.). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64B: 175-180.Google Scholar
  20. Lyndon, A.R., Davidson, I. and Houlihan, D.F. 1993. Changes in tissue and plasma free amino acid concentrations after feeding in Atlantic cod. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 10: 365-375.Google Scholar
  21. Mambrini, M. and Kaushik, S. 1995. Indispensible amino acid requirements of fish:correspondence between quantitative data and amino acid profiles of tissue proteins. J. appl. Ichthy. 11: 240-247.Google Scholar
  22. Medale, F., Parent, J.P. and Vellas, F. 1987. Responses to prolonged hypoxia by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) I. Free amino acid and proteins in plasma, liver and white muscle. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 3: 183-189.Google Scholar
  23. Nose, T., Lee, D.-L. and Arai, S. 1978. The effects of the withdrawal of single free amino acid from an amino acid diet on the free amino acid composition of skeletal muscle in young carp. Bulletin of the Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory Tokyo. 28: 255-263.Google Scholar
  24. NRC 1993.Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  25. Ogata, H. 1986. Correlations of essential amino acid patterns between the dietary protein and the blood, hepatopancreas, or skeletal muscle in carp. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 52: 307-312.Google Scholar
  26. Perera, W.M.K., Carter, C.G., and Houlihan, D.F. 1995. Consumption and absorption efficiency of amino acids in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissWalbaum) eating diets containing bacterial single cell protein. Aquacult. Nutr. 1: 95-103.Google Scholar
  27. Pion, R. 1973. The relationship between the levels of free amino acids in blood and muscle and the nutritive value of proteins. In: Proteins in Human Nutrition. pp. 329-342. Edited by J.W.G. Poter and B.A. Rolls. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  28. Poston, H.A. and Rumsey, G.L. 1983. Factors affecting dietary requirement and deficiency signs of L-tryptophan in rainbow trout. J. Nutr. 113: 2568-2577.Google Scholar
  29. Schlisio, W. and Nicola, B. 1978. Kinetic investigations on the behaviour of free amino acids in the plasma and of two aminotransferases in the liver of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneriRichardson) after feeding on a synthetic composition containing pure amino acids. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 59B: 373-379.Google Scholar
  30. Storebakken, T., Shearer, K.D., Baeverfjord, G., Nielson, B.G., Asgard, T., Scott, T. and De Laporte, A. 2000. Digestibility of macronutrients, energy and amino acids, absorption of elements and absence of intestinal enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, fed diets with wheat gluten. Aquaculture. 184: 115-132.Google Scholar
  31. Tacon, A.G.J. and Cowey, C.B. 1985. Protein and amino acid requirements. In: Fish Energetics New Perspectives. pp. 155-183. Edited by P. Tytler and P. Calow. Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  32. Walton, M. and Wilson, R. 1986. Postprandial changes in plasma and liver and amino acids of rainbow trout fed complete diets containing casein. Aquaculture. 51: 105-115.Google Scholar
  33. Wathne, E., Bjerkeng, B., Storebakken, T., Vassvik, V. and Odland, A.B. 1998. Pigmentation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed astaxanthin in all meals or in alternating meals. Aquaculture. 159: 217-231.Google Scholar
  34. Wilson, R.P. 1989. Amino acids and proteins. In: Fish Nutrition, Second Edition. pp. 112-151. Edited by J.E. Halver. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  35. Wilson, R.P. and Cowey, C.B. 1985. Amino acid composition of whole body tissue of rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture. 48: 373-376.Google Scholar
  36. Wilson, R.P., Gatlin, D.M. and Poe, W.E. 1985. Postprandial changes in serum amino acids of channel catfish fed diets containing different levels of protein and energy. Aquaculture. 49: 101-110.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson, R.P. and Poe, W.E. 1985. Relationship of whole body and egg essential amino acid patterns to amino acid requirement patterns in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 80B: 385-388.Google Scholar
  38. Yamanda, S., Simpson, K.L., Tanaka, Y. and Katayama, T. 1981. Plasma amino acid changes in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneriforce-fed casein and a corresponding amino acid mixture. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 47: 1035-1040.Google Scholar
  39. Zello, G.A., Wykes, L.J., Ball, R.O. and Pencharz, P.B. 1995. Recent advance in methods of assessing dietary amino acids requirements for adult humans. J. Nutr. 125: 2907-2915.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • C.G. Carter
    • 1
  • D.F. Houlihan
    • 2
  • Z-Y. He
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Aquaculture, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries InstituteUniversity of TasmaniaTasmaniaAustralia
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations