Brain Topography

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 283–292

Non-Painful and Painful Surface and Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation at the Thenar and Hypothenar Sites: Differential Cerebral Dynamics of Early to Late Latency SEPs

  • David M. Niddam
  • Thomas Graven-Nielsen
  • Lars Arendt-Nielsen
  • Andrew C.N. Chen
Article

Abstract

Little is known about somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from muscle stimulation compared to that from skin stimulation. The current study examined this issue in the full SEP spectrum (0 - 440 ms). The aims of the study were to (1) establish the dynamics of early to late latency SEPs from intramuscular stimulation in contrast to surface stimulation, (2) compare the effect of non-painful and painful stimuli on SEP latencies and amplitudes of the two methods, and (3) investigate to which extent these results can be shared between the median nerve innervated thenar site and ulnar nerve innervated hypothenar site. Stimuli were delivered (2 Hz) at a non-painful and a painful intensity above or within the thenar and hypothenar muscles of the hand. Maximas of the SEPs were extracted by a combination of global field power and visual inspection of the topographies. Amplitudes and latencies of the maximas were analysed by a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. In the early phase (0 - 50 ms) the topographic patterns showed different dynamics between surface and intramuscular stimulation and in the late phase (100- 440 ms) prolonged latencies were found for intramuscular stimulation. Apart from this, similar topographic patterns and time sequences were obtained. Significant higher SEP amplitudes for most of the isolated components (C4'/P25, Fz/N35, C4'/P45, Fc2/N65, P4/P90, T4/N137, F3/P150, Cz/P240-P270) were found with surface stimulation compared to intramuscular stimulation. In contrast to surface stimulation, intramuscular stimulation at a stimulation frequency of 2 Hz did not result in a differentiation in amplitude for any of the isolated components. These results indicate differences in the early and late processing of sensory input from skin and muscle.

Surface and intramuscular electrical stimulation Pain vs. no pain Thenar-hypothenar Somatosensory evoked potentials Topographic maps 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arendt-Nielsen, L., Graven-Nielsen, T., Svensson, P. and Jensen, T.S. Temporal summation in muscles and referred pain areas: an experimental human study. Muscle Nerve, 1997 Oct, 20(10): 1311-1313.Google Scholar
  2. Babiloni, C., Babiloni, F., Carducci, F., Cincotti, F., Rosciarelli, F., Rossini, P. Arendt-Nielsen, L. and Chen, A. Mapping of early and late human somatosensory evoked brain potentials to galvanic painful stimulation. Human Brain Mapping, 2001 Mar, 12(3): 168-179.Google Scholar
  3. Beydoun, A., Morrow, T.J., Shen, J.F. and Casey, K.L. Variability of laser-evoked potentials: attention, arousal and lateralized differences. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1993, 88(3): 173-181.Google Scholar
  4. Buchner, H., Adams, L., Muller, A., Ludwig, I., Knepper, A., Thron, A., Niemann, K. and Scherg, M. Somatotopy of human hand somatosensory cortex revealed by dipole source analysis of early somatosensory evoked potentials and 3D-NMR. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1995 Mar, 96(2): 121-134.Google Scholar
  5. Buchsbaum, M.S., Davis, G.C., Coppola, R. and Naber, D. Opiate pharmacology and individual differences. I. Psychophysical pain measurements. Pain, 1981, 10(3): 357-366.Google Scholar
  6. Buchsbaum, M.S., Davis, G.C., Coppola, R. and Naber, D. Opiate pharmacology and individual differences. II. Somatosensory evoked potentials. Pain, 1981, 10(3): 367-377.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, A.C.N., Chapman, C.R. and Harkins, S.W. Brain evoked potentials are functional correlates of induced pain in man. Pain, 1979, 6(3): 365-374.Google Scholar
  8. Edin, B.B. and Abbs, J.H. Finger movement responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the dorsal skin of the human hand. J. Neurophysiol., 1991 Mar, 65(3): 657-670.Google Scholar
  9. Gandevia, S.C., Burke, D. and McKeon, B. The projection of muscle afferents from the hand to cerebral cortex in man. Brain, 1984 Mar, 107 (Pt 1): 1-13.Google Scholar
  10. Gandevia, S.C. and Burke, D. Projection to the cerebral cortex from proximal and distal muscles in the human upper limb. Brain, 1988 Apr, 111 (Pt 2): 389-403.Google Scholar
  11. Gandevia, S.C. and Burke, D. Projection of thenar muscle afferents to frontal and parietal cortex of human subjects. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1990 Sep–Oct, 77(5): 353-361.Google Scholar
  12. Garcia Larrea, L., Bastuji, H. and Mauguiere, F. Unmasking of cortical SEP components by changes in stimulus rate: a topographic study. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1992 Jan–Feb, 84(1): 71-83.Google Scholar
  13. Halonen, J.P., Jones, S. and Shawkat, F. Contribution of cutaneous and muscle afferent fibres to cortical SEPs following median and radial nerve stimulation in man. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1988 Sep–Oct, 71(5): 331-335.Google Scholar
  14. Hari, R., Hamalainen, M., Kaukoranta, E., Reinikainen, K. and Teszner, D. Neuromagnetic responses from the second somatosensory cortex in Acta. Neurol. Scand., 1983, 68(4): 207-212.Google Scholar
  15. Huttunen, J. Effects of stimulus intensity on frontal, central and parietal somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve stimulation. Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1995 Jun–Jul, 35(4): 217-223.Google Scholar
  16. Kany, C. and Treede, R.D. Median and tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials: middle-latency components from the vicinity of the secondary somatosensory cortex in humans. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1997 Sep, 104(5): 402-410.Google Scholar
  17. Kawamura, T., Nakasato, N., Seki, K., Kanno, A., Fujita, S., Fujiwara, S. and Yoshimoto, T. Neuromagnetic evidence of pre-and post-central cortical sources of somatosensory evoked responses. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1996 Jan, 100(1): 44-50.Google Scholar
  18. Kunesch, E., Knecht, S., Schnitzler, A., Tyercha, C., Schmitz, F. and Freund, H.J. Somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by intraneural microstimulation of afferent nerve fibers. J. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1995 Sep, 12(5): 476-487.Google Scholar
  19. Lehmann, D. and Skrandies, W. Reference-free identification of components of checkerboard-evoked multichannel potential fields. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1980 Jun, 48(6): 609-621.Google Scholar
  20. Niddam, D.M., Arendt-Nielsen, L. and Chen, A.C.N. Cerebral dynamics of SEPs to non-painful and painful cutaneous electrical stimulation of the thanar and hypothenar. Brain topogr., 2000 Winter, 13(2): in press.Google Scholar
  21. Shimojo, M., Svensson, P., Arendt-Nielsen, L. and Chen, A.C.N. Dynamic brain topography of somatosensory evoked potentials and equivalent dipoles in response to graded painful skin and muscle stimulation. Brain topogr., 2000 Fall, 13(1): 43-58.Google Scholar
  22. Svensson, P., Beydoun, A., Morrow, T.J. and Casey, K.L. Human intramuscular and cutaneous pain: psychophysical comparisons. Exp. Brain Res., 1997 Apr, 114(2): 390-392.Google Scholar
  23. Svensson, P., Beydoun, A., Morrow, T.J. and Casey, K.L. Non-painful and painful stimulation of human skin and muscle: analysis of cerebral evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1997a Jul, 104(4): 343-350.Google Scholar
  24. Svensson, P., Minoshima, S., Beydoun, A., Morrow, T.J. and Casey, K.L. Cerebral processing of acute skin and muscle pain in humans. J. Neurophysiol., 1997b Jul, 78(1): 450-460.Google Scholar
  25. Tomberg, C., Desmedt, J.E., Ozaki, I., Nguyen, T.H. and Chalklin, V. Mapping somatosensory evoked potentials to finger stimulation at intervals of 450 to 4000 msec and the issue of habituation when assessing early cognitive components. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1989 Sep–Oct, 74(5): 347-358.Google Scholar
  26. Tsuji, S. and Murai, Y. Scalp topography and distribution of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1986 Nov, 65(6): 429-439.Google Scholar
  27. Vanni, S., Rockstroh, B. and Hari, R. Cortical sources of human short-latency somatosensory evoked fields to median and ulnar nerve stimuli. Brain Res., 1996 Oct 21, 737(1–2): 25-33.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Niddam
    • 1
  • Thomas Graven-Nielsen
    • 1
  • Lars Arendt-Nielsen
    • 1
  • Andrew C.N. Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Brain Mapping and Cortical Imaging Laboratory, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction,Aalborg University,Aalborg,Denmark

Personalised recommendations