Advertisement

Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 255–266 | Cite as

Depletion of the mangroves of Continental Asia

  • F. Blasco
  • M. Aizpuru
  • C. Gers
Article

Abstract

The mangroves located around the Bay of Bengal and along the coast ofSouth China Sea are of special interest for many reasons. This coastlinereceives three major tropical rivers (Ganges, Irrawaddy, Mekong) and it hasthe world's largest mangrove stands in a single block (the Sunderbans). Thecontrasted climatic conditions from sub-arid (southeastern India), to moist(coastal Cambodia), and the extreme diversity of human impacts in one ofthe world's highest population densities (West Bengal in India andBangladesh), have created a mosaic of mangrove types that are floristicallyrich and with different histories, different ecological frameworks and distinct evolutionary trends.For the first time, we draw together remote sensing data along withessential structural and physiognomic parameters of mangrove forest areas.We have devised a sufficiently accurate coastal mapping methodologyproviding statistics on the actual areal extent of mangrove types andsub-types, both at local and continental scales. Some results are entirelynew, and others provide comparison with existing data. The exact extentof mangroves in Myanmar was previously unknown. Using remote sensingwe also demonstrate the magnitude of the ongoing deforestation in thiscountry. The current location and status of mangrove forests in the affectedarea are described using the methodology which is also being applied inother sites around the world.

classification distribution patterns mapping remote sensing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achard, F., Eva, H., Glinni, A., Mayaux, P. 1998. Identification of Deforestation not SPOT Areas in the Humid Tropics. TREES project. Joint Research Center, Ispra.Google Scholar
  2. Backer, C.A. and Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. 1951. Sonneratiaceae. Flora Malesiana Ser. I. 4: 280–289.Google Scholar
  3. Ball, M.C. 1988. Ecophysiology of Mangroves. Trees 89: 129–142.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, M.C., Cowan, J.R., Farquaar, G.D. 1988. Maintainance of leaf temperature and the optimum of carbon gain in relation to water loss in a tropical mangrove forest. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 15: 263–276.Google Scholar
  5. Blasco, F., Gauquelin, T., Rasolofoharinoro, M., Denis, J., Aizpuru, M. and Calderou, V. 1997. Recent advances in mangrove studies using remote sensing data. Aust. J. Marine & Fresh Water Res. 49: 287–296.Google Scholar
  6. Blasco, F. and Aizpuru, M. 1997. Classification and evolution of the mangroves of India. Tropical Ecol. 38: 357–374.Google Scholar
  7. Blasco, F. and Aizpuru, M. 2000. Recent data on the mangroves of the Bay of Bengal. Indian J. Marine Sci. (submitted).Google Scholar
  8. Bruenig, E.F. 1996. Conservation and Management of Tropical Rainforests. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. Choudhuri, P.K. Roy. 1985. Silvo-pisciculture prospects and problems in Sundarban West-Bengal, India. Some studies. National Symposium of mangroves, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharastra: 330–334.Google Scholar
  10. Choudhuri, P.K. Roy. 1990. Artificial regeneration of Sonneratia apetala (BUCH-HAM in Sundarbans, West Bengal). The Indian Forester 116: 773–779.Google Scholar
  11. Duke, N.C. 1995. Genetic diversity, distributional barriers and rafting continents; more thoughts on the evolution of mangroves. Hydrobiologia 295: 167–181.Google Scholar
  12. Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C., Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecol. Bio. Lett. 7: 27–47.Google Scholar
  13. Field, C. 1996. Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. ISME, Okinawa.Google Scholar
  14. Hill, R.A. 1999. Image segmentation for humid tropical forest classification in Landsat TM data. Int. J. Remote Sens. 20: 1039–1044.Google Scholar
  15. Hong, P.N. and San, H.T. 1993. Mangroves of Vietnam. The IUCN Wetlands Programme. IUCN, AIT, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  16. IDRC/NRCT/RFD 1991. Remote Sensing and Mangroves Project (Thailand). National Research Council of Thailand, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  17. Imhoff, M.I., Vermillion, C., Story, M.H. 1987. Monsoon flood boundary delineation and damage assessment using space borne imaging radar and landsat data. Photogram. Engin. Remote Sens. 53: 405–413.Google Scholar
  18. Islam, M.R., Khan, M.A.S., Siddiqi, N.A., Saenger, P. 1990. Optimal planting season for Keora (Sonneratia apetala) in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Forest Sci. 19: 54–65.Google Scholar
  19. ISME 1993. The economic and Environmental Values of Mangrove Forests and Their Present State of Conservation in the South East Asia/Pacific Region, Okinawa.Google Scholar
  20. IUCN 1983. Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems. Commission on Ecology Papers n° 3. IUCN, Commission on Ecology, Gland.Google Scholar
  21. Klemas, V. and Bartlett, D.S. 1975. Coastal zone classification from satellite imagery. Photogram. Engin. Remote Sens. 41: 499–513.Google Scholar
  22. Kostermans, A.J.G.H. 1959. The genus Heritiera. Reinwardtia 4: 465–583.Google Scholar
  23. Lambin, E.F. and Ehrlich, D. 1997. The identification of tropical deforestation fronts at broad spatial scales. Int. J. Remote Sens. 18: 3551–3568.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, S.Y. 1989. Litter production and turnover of the mangrove Kandelia in a Hong Kong tidal shrimp pond. Estuarine, Coast. Shelf Sci. 29: 75–87.Google Scholar
  25. LOICZ 1998. Towards Integrated Modelling and Analysis in Coastal Zones: Principles and Practices. LOICZ (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone) reports and studies n° 11, Den Burg — Texel.Google Scholar
  26. Malingreau, J.P., Achard, F., D'Souza, G., Stibig, H.J., D'Souza, J., Estréguil, C., Eva, H. 1995. AVHRR for global tropical forest monitoring: the lessons of the TREES project. Remote Sens. Rev. 12: 29–40.Google Scholar
  27. Moquillon, C. 1950. La forêt de palétuviers de la pointe de Ca Mau. Archives Services Forestiers, Saigon.Google Scholar
  28. NAS (National Academy of Science). 1974. The Effects of Herbicides in South Vietnam. Part A: Summary and Conclusion. Committee on the Effects of Herbicides in Vietnam. Wash. IV, pp. 92–125.Google Scholar
  29. Prakash, N. and Lim, A.L. 1995. The systematic position of Aegialitis, the enigmatic mangrove. Wallaceana 74: 11–15.Google Scholar
  30. Rao, A.N. 1987. Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia and the Pacific. Mangroves of Asia and the Pacific, status and management. UNDP/UNESCO, RAS/79/002, pp. 1–48.Google Scholar
  31. Ramsey, E.W. and Jensen, J.R. 1996. Remote sensing of mangrove wetlands; relating canopy spectra to site-specific data. Photogram. Engin. Remote Sens. 62: 939–48.Google Scholar
  32. Rasolofoharinoro, M, Blasco, F., Bellan, M.F., Aizpuru, M. and Gauquelin, T. 1998. A remote sensing based method for mangrove studies in Madagascar. Int. J. Remote Sens. 19: 1873–1886.Google Scholar
  33. Ross, P. 1975. The mangrove of South Vietnam: the impact of Military use of herbicides. Proceedings of International Symposium of Biology and Management of mangroves. Hawaii: 695–709.Google Scholar
  34. Saenger, P. and Siddiqi, N.A. 1993. Land from the sea: the mangrove afforestation program of Bangladesh. Ocean & Coast. Manag. 20: 23–39.Google Scholar
  35. Siddiqi, N.A. 1998. Enrichment planting in the mangrove of Sunderbans–A review. Bangladesh J. Forest Sci. 27: 103–113.Google Scholar
  36. Silapathong, C. 1992. Utilisation combinée d'un S.I.G. et de la télédétection pour le suivi des mangroves en Thaïlande. Thèse, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.Google Scholar
  37. Silapathong, C. and Blasco, F. 1992. The application of geographic information system to mangrove forest management: Khlung, Thailand. Asian Pacific Remote Sens. J. 5: 97–104.Google Scholar
  38. Snedaker, S.C. 1982. Mangrove species zonation: why? Tasks for Vegetation Science Vol. 2. In: Sen, D.N. and Rajpurobit, K.J. (eds.). pp. 111–125. Dr. W. Junk Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Spalding, M., Blasco, F. and Field, C. 1997. Word Mangrove Atlas. ISME, Okinawa.Google Scholar
  40. Teas, H.J. and Kelly, J. 1975. Effect of herbicides on mangroves of South Vietnam and Florida. Proceedings of International Symposium on Biology and Management of Mangroves. Hawaii: 719–728.Google Scholar
  41. Tri, W.H., Adger, W.N. and Kelly, P.M. 1998. Natural resources management in mitigating climate impacts: mangrove restoration in Vietnam. Global Env. Change 8: 49–61.Google Scholar
  42. UNESCO-UNDP 1986. Mangroves of Asia and the Pacific: Status and Management. Quezon City.Google Scholar
  43. UNDP-UNESCO 1991. The integrated multidisciplinary survey and research programme of the Ranong mangrove ecosystem. RAS/86/120. National Research Council of Thailand, Bangkok.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Blasco
    • 1
  • M. Aizpuru
    • 1
  • C. Gers
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d'Ecologie Terrestre(CNRS – Université Paul Sabatier)Toulouse cedex 4 –France

Personalised recommendations