Reconstructing fluctuations of a shallow East African lake during the past 1800 yrs from sediment stratigraphy in a submerged crater basin
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The sedimentology of an 8.22-m long core of late-Holocene deposits in the submerged Crescent Island Crater basin of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, is used to reconstruct decade-scale fluctuations in lake-surface elevation during the past 1800 yrs. Lake-depth inference for the past 1000 yrs is semi-quantitative, based on (1) relationships between lake level and bottom dynamics predicted by wave theory, and (2) historical validation of the effects of lake-level fluctuation and hydrologic closure on sediment composition in Crescent Island Crater and nearby Lake Oloidien. In these shallow fluctuating lakes, organic-carbon variation in a lithological sequence from clayey mud to algal gyttja is positively correlated with lake depth at the time of deposition, because the focusing of oxidized littoral sediments which dilute autochthonous organic matter before burial is reduced during highstands. The lake-level reconstruction for Lake Naivasha agrees with other adequately dated lake-level records from equatorial East Africa in its implication of dry climatic conditions during the Mediaeval Warm Period and generally wet conditions during the Little Ice Age. Crescent Island Crater survived widespread aridity in the early-19th century as a fresh weedy pond, while the main basin of Lake Naivasha and many other shallow East African lakes fell dry and truncated their sediment archive of Little Ice Age climatic variability.
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