Reading and Writing

, Volume 14, Issue 3–4, pp 265–296 | Cite as

Heterogeneity in adult dyslexic readers: Relating processing skills to the speed and accuracy of oral text reading

  • Seija Leinonen
  • Kurt Müller
  • Paavo H.T. Leppänen
  • Mikko Aro
  • Timo Ahonen
  • Heikki Lyytinen


Subgroups of Finnish dyslexic adults (N = 84)displaying, relative to each other, a distinctivecombination of accuracy and speed of oral text readingwere compared in phonological and orthographicprocessing, verbal short-term memory and readinghabits. Inaccurate phonological decoding appeared todetermine the number of errors made in text reading,while inability to utilize effectively rapid lexicalaccess of words manifested as slow text reading speed.Phonological and orthographic word recognitionprocesses were less tightly integrated among dyslexicthan normal readers. Our results indicate thatadvanced orthographic processing skills might help anumber of the dyslexic readers to compensate for theirserious phonological deficits. The subgroups alsodiffered from each other in reading habits. Arelatively fast reading speed, even with numerouserrors, appears to be more rewarding in everydayreading than a slower but more accurate readingstyle.

Adult dyslexia Heterogeneity in dyslexia Oral text reading Orthographic processing Phonological processing Subgrouping of dyslexic adults 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seija Leinonen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kurt Müller
    • 3
  • Paavo H.T. Leppänen
    • 3
  • Mikko Aro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Timo Ahonen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Heikki Lyytinen
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Niilo Mäki InstituteFinland
  2. 2.Child Research CenterFinland
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of JyväskyläFinland

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