Reading and Writing

, Volume 14, Issue 5–6, pp 549–568 | Cite as

Converging evidence for the concept of orthographic processing

  • Anne E. Cunningham
  • Kathryn E. Perry
  • Keith E. Stanovich


Six different measures of orthographic processing (three different letter string choice tasks, two orthographic choice tasks, and a homophone choice task) were administered to thirty-nine children who had also been administered the word recognition subtest of the Metropolitan Achievement Test and a comprehensive battery of tasks assessing phonological processing skill (four measures of phonological sensitivity, nonword repetition, and pseudoword reading). The six orthographic tasks displayed moderate convergence – forming one reasonably coherent factor. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that a composite measure of orthographic processing skill predicted variance in word recognition after variance accounted for by the phonological processing measures had been partialed out. A measure of print exposure predictedvariance in orthographic processing after the variance in phonologicalprocessing had been partialed out.

Orthographic processing Phonological processing Reading acquisition Word recognition 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne E. Cunningham
    • 1
  • Kathryn E. Perry
    • 2
  • Keith E. Stanovich
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Cognition & Development DivisionUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.University of TorontoCanada

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