Hyperfine Interactions

, Volume 112, Issue 1–4, pp 59–66 | Cite as

Characterization of Iron Oxides Commonly Formed as Corrosion Products on Steel

  • Sei J. Oh
  • D.C. Cook
  • H.E. Townsend


For fundamental studies of the atmospheric corrosion of steel, it is useful to identify the iron oxide phases present in rust layers. The nine iron oxide phases, iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)2), iron trihydroxide (Fe(OH)3), goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), feroxyhite (δ-FeOOH), hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) are among those which have been reported to be present in the corrosion coatings on steel. Each iron oxide phase is uniquely characterized by different hyperfine parameters from Mössbauer analysis, at temperatures of 300K, 77K and 4K. Many of these oxide phases can also be identified by use of Raman spectroscopy. The relative fraction of each iron oxide can be accurately determined from the Mössbauer subspectral area and recoil-free fraction of each phase. The different Mössbauer geometries also provide some depth dependent phase identification for corrosion layers present on the steel substrate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to uniquely identify each iron oxide phase to a high spatial resolution of about 1 µm.


Magnetite Iron Oxide Hematite Raman Spectroscopy Corrosion Product 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    S. J. Oh, D.C. Cook and A.C. Van Orden, Proc. of the Int. Conference on the Application of the Mössbauer Effect, 50 (1996) 653.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    H. Leidheiser, Jr. and S. Musić, Corrosion Science 22 (1982) 1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. Yamashita, H. Miyuki, Y. Matsuda, H. Nagano and T. Misawa, Corrosion Science 36 (1994) 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J. Dünnwald and A. Otto, Corrosion Science 29 (1989) 1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    R.G. Grant, P.S. Cook and D.C. Cook, J. Mat. Res. 10 (1995) 2454.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J.M. Genin, PH. Bauer, A.A. Olowe and D. Rezel, Hyperfine Interactions 29 (1986) 1355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    G. W. Simmons and H. Leidheiser, Jr. in: Applications of Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Vol. 1, ed. R. L. Cohen, (Academic Press, New York, 1976) p. 85.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S.C.F. Au-Yeung, G. Denes, J.E. Greedan, D.R. Eaton and T. Birchall, Inorg Chem., 23 (1984) 1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    T. Meaz, C. Bender and S. Morup, Proc. of the Int. Conference on the Application of the Mössbauer Effect, 50 (1996) 525.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    E. De Grave and A. Van Alboom, Phys. Chem. Minerals 18 (1991) 337.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    L. H. Bowen, E. De Grave and R.E. Vandenberghe in: Mössbauer Spectroscopy Applied to Magnetism and Materials Science, Vol. 1, ed. G.J. Long (Plenum Press, New York, 1993) p. 115.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. Meagher, Q.A. Pankhurst and D.P.E. Dickson, Hyperfine Interactions 28 (1986) 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    D. Rezel and J.M.R. Genin, Hyperfine Interactions 57 (1990) 2067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    E. Murad and J. H. Johnston in: Mössbauer Spectroscopy Applied to Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 2, ed. G.J. Long (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1987) p. 507.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    P.M.A. De Bakker, E. De Grave, R.E. Vandenberghe and L.H. Bowen, Hyperfine Interactions 54 (1990) 493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    J. Gui and T.M. Devine, Proc. of the 12th Int. Corrosion Congress, NACE International, Houston, (1993) 2052.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. Dunnwald and A. Otto, Corrosion Science 29 (1989) 1167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    T. Ohtsuka, K. Kubo and N. Sato, Corrosion 42 (1986) 476.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    T. Ohtsuka, Materials Transactions, JIM 37 (1996) 67.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    N. Boucherit, P. Delicher, S. Joiret and A. Hugot-Le Goff, Materials Science Forum 51 (1989) 44.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    D. Thierry, D. Persson, C. Lyegraf, D. Delichere, S. Joiret, C. Pallotta and A. Hugot-Le Goff, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135 (1988) 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    R.J. Thibeau, C.W. Rrown and R.H. Heidersbach, Applied Spectroscopy 32 (1978) 532.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sei J. Oh
    • 1
  • D.C. Cook
    • 1
  • H.E. Townsend
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkU.S.A.
  2. 2.Bethlehem Steel CorporationBethlehemU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations