Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate
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Purpose. To test the hypothesis that the pharmacokinetics of d-meth- ylphenidate (d-MPH) would be altered by food ingested before administration of an immediate release formulation (dl-MPH- IR) but not when food is ingested before a slow release formulation (dl-MPH-SR).
Methods. A randomized, four-phase, open label, crossover design was conducted in 24 healthy men who each received, on separate occasions, dl-MPH-IR and dl-MPH-SR taken after an overnight fast and 15 min after a standardized breakfast (20% protein, 21% fat, 59% carbohydrate). Plasma MPH levels were monitored by a validated, stereoselective, GLC-ECD method.
Results. For plasma d-MPH, there were significant differences (ANOVA) between dl-MPH-IR and dl-MPH-SR in tmax, Cmax (peak exposure), and Cmax/AUC (sensitive to rate of absorption). Dl-MPH-SR on average delayed tmax from 2.3 to 3.7 h and lowered Cmax 34%. There was no significant difference between the formulations in AUC (extent of absorption). For dl-MPH-IR, food significantly increased Cmax (23%) and AUC (15%) and for dl-MPH-SR the corresponding increases were Cmax (17%) and AUC (14%). After dl-MPH-IR, food delayed average tmax from 2.0 to 2.5 but had no effect on tmax after dl-MPH-SR. There was no effect of food on Cmax/AUC (rate of absorption).
Conclusions. Food caused a significant increase in extent of absorption but had no effect on rate of absorption of d-MPH after either dl-MPHIR or dl-MPH-SR.
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