Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 321–339 | Cite as

The Work Ethic Values of Protestant British, Catholic Irish and Muslim Turkish Managers

  • M. Arslan
Article

Abstract

This paper examines the work ethic characteristics of particular practising Protestant, Catholic and Muslim managers in Britain, Ireland and Turkey. Max Weber, argued that Protestant societies had a particular work ethic which was quite distinct from non-Protestant societies. The Protestant work ethics (PWE) thesis of Weber was reviewed. Previous empirical and analytical research results showed that the number of research results which support Weberian ideas were more than those which did not support. Methodological issues were also discussed. Results revealed that there was a considerable difference between Muslim and other groups in terms of PWE characteristics. The Muslim group showed the highest PWE level, while the Protestant group was placed second and the Catholic group third. The Protestant group showed a slightly higher of PWE level than the Catholic group. The possible reasons for the higher level of the PWE values of Muslim managers are discussed in the light of historical, political, social and economic developments in Turkey.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albee, G. W.: 1977, ‘The Protestant Ethic, Sex and Psychotherapy', American Psychologist 32(2), 150–161.Google Scholar
  2. Aldag, R. J. and A. P. Brief: 1975, ‘Some Correlates of Work Values', Journal of Applied Psychology 60(6), 757–760.Google Scholar
  3. Ali, A.: 1987, ‘Scaling an Islamic Work Ethic', Journal of Social Psychology 128(5), 575–583.Google Scholar
  4. Ali, A. and M. Al-Shakhis: 1989, ‘Managerial Beliefs About Work in Two Arab States', Organization Studies 10(2), 169–186.Google Scholar
  5. Arslan M.: 1999, A Cross-cultural Comparison of the Work Ethic of Protestant, Catholic and Muslim Managers, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Leeds University.Google Scholar
  6. Atieh, J. M. and A. P. Brief: 1987, ‘The PWE Conservatism Paradox; Beliefs and Values in Work and Life', Personality and Individual Differences 8(2), 577–580.Google Scholar
  7. Babu, P. P. and K. S. Reddy: 1989, ‘Work Ethic Religiosity and Job Involvement Employees Under Different Managements', Indian Journal of Applied Psychology 26(2), 30–37.Google Scholar
  8. Banks, R.: 1998, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic', Faith in Business Quarterly 2(2), 5–7.Google Scholar
  9. Beit-Hallahmi, B.: 1979, ‘Personal and Social Components of the Protestant Ethic', Journal of Social Psychology 109(2), 263–267.Google Scholar
  10. Berniker, E.: 1993, ‘Productivity and its Reward: Toward a New Ethic', Employee and Rights Journal 6(2), 161–170.Google Scholar
  11. Bonett, C. and A. Furnham: 1991, ‘Who Wants to be an Entrepreneur', Journal of Economic Psychology 12(3), 465–478.Google Scholar
  12. Bordeleau, Y.: 1985, ‘Work Values and Personal Managing Style', Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 17(3), 246–262.Google Scholar
  13. Bourke, R. J. and T. Weir: 1980, ‘Personality, Value and Behavioural Correlates of the Type-A Individual', Psychological Reports 46(1), 171–181.Google Scholar
  14. Bucholz, R. A.: 1977, ‘The Belief Structure of Managers Relative to Work Concepts Measured by a Factor Analytic Model', Personal Psychology 30(4), 567–587.Google Scholar
  15. Bucholz, R. A.: 1978, ‘The Work Ethic Reconsidered', Industrial and Labour Relations Review 31(4), 450–459.Google Scholar
  16. Brief, A. P. and R. J. Aldag: 1977, ‘Work Values as Moderates of Perceive Leader Behaviour Satifaction Relationship', Sociology of Work and Occupations 4(1), 99–112.Google Scholar
  17. Casserly, M. C.: 1980, ‘Canadian Work Related Values', Canadian Counsellor 15(1), 38–42.Google Scholar
  18. Cherrington, D.: 1980, The Work Ethic: Working Values and Values that Work (Amacom, New York).Google Scholar
  19. Chonko, L. B.: 1983, ‘Job Involvement as Obsessioncompulsion Some Preliminary Empirical Findings', Psychological Reports 53(3/2), 1191–1197.Google Scholar
  20. Chushmir, L. H. and C. S. Koberg: 1988, ‘Religion and Attitudes Toward Work. A New Look at an Old Question', Journal of Organizational Behaviour 9(3), 251–262.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. M.: 1985, ‘Protestant Ethic and Statusattainment', Sociological Analysis 46(1), 49–57.Google Scholar
  22. Davies, C.: 1992, ‘The Prtotestant Work Ethic and the Comic Spirit of Capitalism', British Journal of Psychology 43(3), 421–442.Google Scholar
  23. Eisenstadt, S. N.: 1981, The Protestant Work Ethic, Ed. by R. Robertson (Penguin Books, Suffolk). Financial Times, 23rd June 1998.Google Scholar
  24. Fine, R.: 1983, ‘The Protestant Ethic and the Analytic Ideal', Political Psychology 4(2), 254–264.Google Scholar
  25. Furnham, A.: 1982, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Attitudes toward Unemployment', Journal of Occupational Psychology 55(4), 277–285.Google Scholar
  26. Furnham, A.: 1983, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic: Human Values and Attitudes Towards Taxation', Journal of Economic Psychology 3(2), 113–128.Google Scholar
  27. Furnham, A.: 1984, ‘Work Values and Beliefs in Britain', Journal of Occupational Behaviour 5(4), 281–291.Google Scholar
  28. Furnham, A.: 1990, The Protestant Work Ethic (Routledge, London).Google Scholar
  29. Furnham, A.: 1990a, ‘A Content, Correlational, and Factor Analytic Study of Seven Quetionnaire Measures of the Protestant Work Ethic', Human Relations 43(4), 383–399.Google Scholar
  30. Furnham, A.: 1990b, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Type A Behaviour', Psychological Records 66(1), 323–328.Google Scholar
  31. Furnham, A.: 1991, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic in Barbados', Journal of Social Psychology 131(1), 29–43.Google Scholar
  32. Furnham, A., M. Bond, P. Heaven and D. Hilton: 1993, ‘A Comparison of Protestant Work Ethic Beliefs in Thirteen Nations', Journal of Social Psychology 133(2), 185–197.Google Scholar
  33. Furnham, A., B. D. Kirkcaldy and R. Lyne: 1994, ‘National Attitudes of Competitiveness Money and Work Among Young People First Second and Third World Differences', Human Relations 47(1), 119–132.Google Scholar
  34. Furnham, A. and C. Bland: 1983, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Conservatism', Personality and Individual Differences 4(2), 205–206.Google Scholar
  35. Furnham, A. and E. Koritsas: 1990, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Vocational Preference', Journal of Organizational Behaviour 11(1), 43–55.Google Scholar
  36. Furnham, A. and C. Muhiudeen: 1984, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic in Britain and Malaysia', Journal of Social Psychology 122(2), 157–161.Google Scholar
  37. Furnham A. and R. Quilley: 1989, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Prisoner's Dilemma Game', British Journal of Social Psychology 28(1), 79–87.Google Scholar
  38. Furnham, A. and R. Rajamanickam: 1992, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Just World Beliefs in the Great Britain and India', International Journal of Psychology 27(6), 401–416.Google Scholar
  39. Furnham, A. and M. Reilly: 1991, ‘A Cross-cultural Comparison of British and Japanese Protestant Work Ethic and Just World Beliefs', Psychologia An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 34(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  40. Furnham, R. and M. Rose: 1987, ‘Alternative Ethics; the Relationship between the Wealth, Welfare, Work and Leisure Ethic', Human Relations 40(2), 561–573.Google Scholar
  41. Ganster, D. C.: 1981, ‘Protestant Ethic and Performance: A Re-examination', Psychological Reports 48(1), 335–338.Google Scholar
  42. Garten, J.: 1996, ‘The Big Emerging Markets', Columbia Journal of World Business 31(2), 7–31.Google Scholar
  43. Giorgi, L. and C. Marsh: 1990, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic as a Cultural Phenomenon', European Journal of Social Psychology 20(6), 499–517.Google Scholar
  44. Glover, R. C.: 1994, ‘Using Moral and Epistemological Reasoning as Predictors of Prejudice', Journal of Social Psychology 134(5), 633–640.Google Scholar
  45. Greenberg, J.: 1977, ‘The PWE and Reactions to Negative Performance Evaluations on a Laboratory Task', Journal of Applied Psychology 62(6), 682–690.Google Scholar
  46. Greenberg, J.: 1978, ‘Protestant Ethic Endorsement and Attitudes Toward Commuting to Work Among Mass Transit Riders', Journal of Applied Psychology 63(6), 755–758.Google Scholar
  47. Greenberg, J.: 1979, ‘Protestant Ethic Endorsement and Fairness of Equity Inputs', Journal of Reserach in Personality 13(1), 81–90.Google Scholar
  48. Guastello, S. J., M. L. Rieke, D. D. Guestello and S. W. Billings: 1992, ‘A Study of Cynicism Personality and Work Values', Journal of Psychology 126(1), 37–48.Google Scholar
  49. Hafsi, M.: 1987, ‘The Effect of Religious Involvement on Work Centrality', Psychologia An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 30(4), 258–266.Google Scholar
  50. Hair, J. F., R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham and W. C. Black: 1995, Multivariete Data Analysis with Readings (Printice Hall Int., U.S.A.).Google Scholar
  51. Hantrais, L., P. A. Clark and N. Samuel: 1984, ‘Timespace Dimensions of Work, Family and Leisure in France and in the U.K.', Leisure Studies 3(3), 301–317.Google Scholar
  52. Heaven, P. C.: 1989, ‘Structure and Personality Correlates of the Protestant Work Ethic Among Women', Personality and Individual Differences 10(1), 101–104.Google Scholar
  53. Heaven, P. C.: 1990, ‘Suggestions for Reducing Unemployment: A Study of Protestant Work Ethic and Economic Locus of Control Beliefs', British Journal of Social Psychology 29(1), 55–65.Google Scholar
  54. Heaven, P. C.: 1991, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Economic Beliefs', Australian-Psychologist 26(1), 59–63.Google Scholar
  55. Henderson, V. E.: 1992, What is Ethical in Business (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  56. Ho, R. and J. I. Jacqueline: 1984, ‘Development of an Australian Work Ethic Scale', Australian Psychologist 19(3), 321–332.Google Scholar
  57. Hofstede, G.: 1984, ‘The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept', Academy of Management Review 9(3), 389–398.Google Scholar
  58. Hooker, K. and D. G. Ventis: 1984, ‘Work Ethic, Daily Activities and Retirement Satisfaction', Journal of Gerontology 39(4), 478–484.Google Scholar
  59. Jones, H. B.: 1997, ‘The Protestant Ethic: Weber's Model and the Empirical Literature', Human Relations 50(7), 757–778.Google Scholar
  60. Kanungo, R. N. and J. T. Bhatnagar: 1978, ‘Achievement Orientation and Occupational Values; A Comparative Study of Young French and English Canadians', Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 10(3), 202–213.Google Scholar
  61. Kenny, M.: 1997, Goodbye to Catholic Ireland (Sinclair and Stevenson Ltd., London).Google Scholar
  62. Khalique, N.: 1975, ‘Bureaucratic Orientation and Work Values', Pakistan Journal of Psychology 8, 65–68.Google Scholar
  63. Kim, H.: 1977, ‘The Relationship of Protestant Ethic Beliefs and Values of Achievement', Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, 255–262.Google Scholar
  64. Kleiber, D. A. and R. Crandal: 1981, ‘Leisure and Work Ethics and Locus of Control', Leisure Sciences 4(4), 477–485.Google Scholar
  65. Lenski, G.: 1961, The Religious Factor: Study of Religion's Impact on Politics, Economics and Family Life (Doubleday, New York).Google Scholar
  66. Ma, L. C.: 1986, ‘The Protestant Ethic Among Taiwanese College Students', Journal of Psychology 120(3), 219–224.Google Scholar
  67. Maguire, M. A. and A. Kroliczak: 1983, ‘Attitudes of Japanese and American Workers; Convergence or Diversity', Sociological Quarterly 24(1), 107–122.Google Scholar
  68. Marshall, J.: 1983, ‘Reducing the Effects of Work Oriented Values on the Lives of Male American Workers', Vocational Guidance Quarterly 32(2), 109–115.Google Scholar
  69. Martin, B.: 1995, ‘New Mutations of the Protestant Ethic Among Latin American Pentecostals', Religion 25(2), 101–117.Google Scholar
  70. Maurer, A., B. Oszustowicz and R. Stocky: 1994, ‘Gender and Attitudes Toward Work', International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 17(1), 35–46.Google Scholar
  71. Mayer, A. and H. Sharp: 1962, ‘Religious Preference and Worldly Success', American Sociological Review 27, 220–227.Google Scholar
  72. Maynard, M.: 1984, ‘Work and Non-work Perspectives and Trends', Journal of Employment Counseling 21(2), 74–82.Google Scholar
  73. McCarrey, M. W., Y. Gasse and L. Moore: 1984, ‘Work Value Goals and Instrumentalities; A Comparison of Canadian West Coast Anglophone and Quebec City Francophone Managers', International Review of Applied Psychology 33(3), 291–303.Google Scholar
  74. Merrens, M. R. and J. B. Garrett: 1975, ‘The Protestant Ethic Scale as a Predictor of Repetitive Work Performance', Journal of Applied Psychology 60(3), 125–127.Google Scholar
  75. Mirels, H. L. and J. B. Garrett: 1971, ‘The Protestant Ethic as a Personality Variable', Journal of Counceling and Clinical Psychology 36(1), 40–44. Google Scholar
  76. Molnar, A. P.: 1997, ‘The Protestant Ethic in Hungary', Religion 22(7), 151–164.Google Scholar
  77. Moran, A. P.: 1990, ‘Allegiance to the Work Ethic, Achievement, Motivation and Fatalism in Irish and American People', Irish Journal of Psychology 11(1), 82–96.Google Scholar
  78. Mudrack, P.: 1993, ‘The Protestant Work Ethic and Type A Behaviour', Personalty and Individual Differences 14(1), 261–263.Google Scholar
  79. Munroe, R. and R. Munroe: 1986, ‘Weber's Protestant Ethic Revisited; An African Case', Journal of Psychology 120, 447–456.Google Scholar
  80. Nichols, T.: 1986, The British Worker Question: A New Look at Workers and Productivity in Manufacturing (Routledge, London).Google Scholar
  81. Niles, F. S.: 1994, ‘The Work Ethic in Australia and Sri-Lanka', Journal of Social Psychology 134(1), 55–59.Google Scholar
  82. Oyserman, D., L. Gant and J. Ager: 1995, ‘A Socialy Contextualized Model of African American Identity', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(6), 1216–1232.Google Scholar
  83. Oyserman, D., L. Gant and J. Ager: 1995, ‘A Socialy Contextualized Model of African American Identity', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(6), 1216–1232.Google Scholar
  84. Pierlot, J.: 1992, ‘A Qualified Defence of Weber's Thesis in the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism', De Phil 9, 29–38.Google Scholar
  85. Poulton R. G. and S. H. Ng: 1989, ‘Relationship between the PWE and Work Effort in a Field Setting', Applied Psychology An International Review 37(3), 227–233.Google Scholar
  86. Ray, J. J.: 1982, ‘The Protestant Ethic in Australia', Journal of Social Psychology 116(1), 127–138.Google Scholar
  87. Rim, Y.: 1977, ‘Significance of Work and Personality', Journal of Occupational Psychology 50(2), 135–138.Google Scholar
  88. Shamir, B.: 1985, ‘Unemployment and Free Time the Role of the PWE and Work Involvement', Leisure Studies 4(3), 333–345.Google Scholar
  89. Shamir, B.: 1986, ‘PWE, Work Involvement and the Psychological Impact of Unemployment', Journal of Occupational Behaviour 7(1), 25–38.Google Scholar
  90. Shane, S.: 1996, ‘Explaining Variations in Rates of Entrepreneurship in the United States: 1889–198 8', Journal of Management 22(5), 747–781.Google Scholar
  91. Shaw, W. H. and J. Barry: 1992, Moral Issues in Business (Wodsworth Publishing Company, U. S.A.).Google Scholar
  92. Singh, J.: 1995, ‘Measurement Issues in Cross-cultural Research', Journal of International Business Studies 26(3), 597–619.Google Scholar
  93. Sinha, J. B.: 1983, ‘Social Energy for Work Values', Dynamische-Psychiatrie 16(5–6), 325–336.Google Scholar
  94. Spence, J. T.: 1985, ‘Achievement American Style; The Rewards and Costs of Individualism', American Psychologist 40(12), 1285–1295.Google Scholar
  95. Stone, E.: 1975, ‘Job Scope, Job Satisfaction and Protestant Work Ethic; A Study of Enlisted Men in the U.S. Navy', Journal of Vocational Behaviour 7(2), 215–224.Google Scholar
  96. Tang, T. L. P. and P. R. Gilbert: 1995, ‘Attitudes Toward Money as Related to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Job Satisfaction, Stress and Work-related Attitudes', Personality and Individual Differences 19(3), 327–332.Google Scholar
  97. Tang, T. K. and J. Y. Tzeng: 1992, ‘Demographic Correlates of the Protestant Work Ethic', Journal of Psychology 126(2), 163–170.Google Scholar
  98. Time, The Weekly Newsmagazine: 1998, 12 January, ‘Turkey at the Crossroad’ 151(2).Google Scholar
  99. Triandis, H. C. et al.: 1984, ‘Role Perceptions of Hispanic Young Adults', Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 15(3), 297–320.Google Scholar
  100. Turner, B. S.: 1994, Religion and Social Theory (Sage Publications, London).Google Scholar
  101. Vandewiele, M. and J. Philbrick: 1986, ‘The Protestant Ethic in West Africa', Psychological Reports 58(3), 940–946.Google Scholar
  102. Waters, L. K., N. Batlis and C. W. Waters: 1975, ‘Protestant Ethic Attitudes Among College Students', Educational and Psychological Measurement 35(2), 447–450.Google Scholar
  103. Waters, L. K. and T. Zakrajsek: 1991, ‘The Construct Validity of Four Protestant Work Ethic Scales', Educational and Psychological Measurement 51(1), 117–122.Google Scholar
  104. Weber, M.: 1982, Essays in Sociology, eds, H. H Gert and W. Mills (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London).Google Scholar
  105. Weber, M.: 1985, Protestan Ahlaki ve Kapitalizmin Ruhu (The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism) (Hil Yayin, Istanbul).Google Scholar
  106. Weiner, A. I. and S. L. Hunt: 1983, ‘Work and Leisure Orientations Among University Students; Implications for College and University Counselors', Personal and Guidance Journal 61(9), 537–542.Google Scholar
  107. Williams, C.: 1983, ‘The Work Ethic Non-work and Leisure in an Age of Automotation', Australian and New Zealand Journal Sociology 19(2), 216–237.Google Scholar
  108. Worach, K. H.: 1980, ‘Two Concepts of the Way of Life; Instrumental Activeness and Expressive Activeness', Studa-Socjoloiczne 79(4), 259–273.Google Scholar
  109. Yamauchi, H. and Y. Li: 1993, ‘Achievement Related Motives and Work Related Attitudes of Japanese and Chinese Students', Psychological Reports 73(3/1), 755–767.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Arslan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Business AdministrationHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations