Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 68, Issue 2, pp 177–185 | Cite as

Water Hardness and Sodium Trends in Texas Aquifers

  • Paul F. Hudak
Article

Abstract

Median hardness and sodium levels in groundwater were calculatedfor 244 Texas counties from measurements at 7728 water wells.The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic informationsystem (GIS). County median hardness levels varied widely, from4–2304 mg L-1. More than 60% of the counties had hardnessmedians above 180 mg L-1. County medium sodium concentrationsranged from 6–1170 mg L-1, with more than 90% of those valuesexceeding 20 mg L-1. There was a significant positive correlationbetween hardness and sodium concentrations in six of Texas' ninemajor aquifers. A significant negative correlation betweenhardness and sodium was observed in two aquifers. Severalfactors control hardness and sodium variations in Texas aquifers including rock/sediment composition, groundwaterchemical evolution, and seepage from nearby formations. Probablehuman controls include agricultural return flow andpumping-induced saltwater intrusion.

groundwater hardness sodium Texas 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bouwer, H.: 1978, Groundwater Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  2. Briggs, J. D. and Ficke, J. F.: 1977, ‘Quality of rivers in the United States, 1975 water year', U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, 78–200, 1–436.Google Scholar
  3. Dahl, L. K. and Love, R. A.: 1957, ‘Etiological role of sodium chloride intake in essential hypertension in humans', Journal of the American Medical Association 164, 397.Google Scholar
  4. Driscoll, F. G.: 1986, Groundwater and Wells, Johnson Division, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  5. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency): 1996, ‘Drinking Water Regulations and Health Advisories', Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute): 1994, ‘ArcView', Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA.Google Scholar
  7. Fallin, J. A.: 1989, ‘Hydrogeology of Lower Cretaceous Strata under the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico', Texas Water Development Board, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  8. Hoffman, C. J.: 1988, ‘Does the sodium level in drinking water affect blood pressure levels?', Perspectives in Practice 88(11), 1432–1435.Google Scholar
  9. Howard, R. L. and Schrier, R. W.: 1990, ‘A unifying hypothesis of sodium and water regulation in health and disease', Hormone Research 34, 118–123.Google Scholar
  10. Rutan, G. H., Kuller, L. H., Neaton, J. D., Wentworth, D. N., McDonald, R. H. and McFate-Smith, W.: 1988, ‘Mortality associated with diastolic hypertension and isolated systolic hypertension among men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trial', Circulation 77(3), 504.Google Scholar
  11. Schroeder, H. A.: 1966, ‘Municipal drinking water and cardiovascular death-rates', Journal of the American Medical Association 195, 125–129.Google Scholar
  12. TWC (Texas Water Commission): 1989, ‘Ground-Water Quality of Texas', Texas Water Commission, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  13. TWC (Texas Water Commission): 1992, ‘The State of Texas Water Quality Inventory', Texas Water Commission, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  14. TWDB (Texas Water Development Board): 1991, ‘Texas Water Facts', Texas Water Development Board, Austin, TX.Google Scholar
  15. Weast, R. C. (ed.).: 1983, ‘CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics', CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  16. Weeks, J. B.: 1986, ‘High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Study', in: J. Sun (ed.), Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, U.S. Geological Survey, Alexandria, VA, pp. 30–49.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul F. Hudak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of North TexasDentonU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations