Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 68, Issue 2, pp 177–185 | Cite as

Water Hardness and Sodium Trends in Texas Aquifers

  • Paul F. Hudak


Median hardness and sodium levels in groundwater were calculatedfor 244 Texas counties from measurements at 7728 water wells.The data were mapped and analyzed with a geographic informationsystem (GIS). County median hardness levels varied widely, from4–2304 mg L-1. More than 60% of the counties had hardnessmedians above 180 mg L-1. County medium sodium concentrationsranged from 6–1170 mg L-1, with more than 90% of those valuesexceeding 20 mg L-1. There was a significant positive correlationbetween hardness and sodium concentrations in six of Texas' ninemajor aquifers. A significant negative correlation betweenhardness and sodium was observed in two aquifers. Severalfactors control hardness and sodium variations in Texas aquifers including rock/sediment composition, groundwaterchemical evolution, and seepage from nearby formations. Probablehuman controls include agricultural return flow andpumping-induced saltwater intrusion.

groundwater hardness sodium Texas 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul F. Hudak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of North TexasDentonU.S.A.

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