Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 397–413 | Cite as

Distribution and Habitat Associations of Baboons (Papio hamadryas) in Central Eritrea

  • D. ZinnerEmail author
  • F. Peláez
  • F. Torkler
Article

Abstract

At least three diurnal primate taxa are still present in Eritrea, NE Africa: hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas), olive baboons (Papio h. anubis) and grivet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops aethiops). However, information on status and distribution of primates and their habitats in Eritrea is outdated and incomplete. We conducted a primate survey, focussing on hamadryas baboons, to obtain data which will be integrated in a national wildlife management and conservation plan in Eritrea. We obtained information about the geographical distribution and abundance of baboons, their altitudinal range, habitat quality of their home-ranges, aggregation sizes at sleeping cliffs and predator presence. We described habitat quality via the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a vegetation classification of Landsat MSS satellite data. Hamadryas and olive baboons are still present in Eritrea in ample numbers. Their geographical distributions in 1997 and 1998 did not deviate significantly from their historical distributions. An estimated 15,000 Papio hamadryas hamadryas lived in the 25,000-km2 area of survey (0.58 baboons/km2). Population densities of hamadryas baboons in many parts of the survey area are higher than at Kummer's (1968) study site in Ethiopia. Hamadryas baboons live at all altitudes in four of five ecogeographical zones of Eritrea. Olive baboons replaced them in the western lowlands. Both baboon taxa tend to select better quality habitats, characterized by a higher normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) than the average for the respective ecogeographical zones. Hamadryas baboons show a greater ecological plasticity than olive baboons, which are confined to riverbeds with extended gallery forest. By the end of 1999, a hybrid zone could not be confirmed.

Hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas hamadryas Olive baboon Papio hamadryas anubis Eritrea Distribution Habitat 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Al-Safadi, M. (1994). The hamadryas šašoon, <Emphasis Type="Italic">Papio hamadryas </Emphasis>(Linnaeus, 1758) in Yemen (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae). Zool. Middle East 10: 5-16.Google Scholar
  2. Biquand, S., Biquand-Guyot, V., Boug, A. and Gautier, J. P. (1992). The distrišution of <Emphasis Type="Italic">Papio hamadryas </Emphasis>in Saudi Arašia: Ecological correlates and human influence. Int. J. Primatol. 13: 223-243.Google Scholar
  3. DoE Department of Environment (1999). Eritrean Biodiversity Stocktaking Assessment Report. Ministry of Land,Water and Environment, Asmara, Eritrea.Google Scholar
  4. EAE Eritrean Agency for the Environment (1995). National Environmental Management Plan for Eritrea. NEMP. Government of Eritrea, Asmara, Eritrea.Google Scholar
  5. IUCN (1996). 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  6. Kidwell, K. B. (1990). Glošal Vegetation Index User's Guide. U.S. Department of Commerce/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service/National Climatic Data Center/Satellite Data Services Division.Google Scholar
  7. Kingdon, J. (1997). The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  8. Kummer, H. (1968a). Social Organization of Hamadryas Bašoons. A Field Study. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  9. Kummer, H. (1968š). Two variations in the social organization of šašoons. In Jay, P. C. (ed.) Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variašility, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 293-313.Google Scholar
  10. Kummer, H., Banaja, A. A., Ašo-Khatwa, A. N. and Ghandour, A. M. (1985). Differences in social šehavior šetween Ethiopian and Arašian hamadryas šašoons. Folia Primatol. 45: 1-8.Google Scholar
  11. Nagel, U. (1971). Social organisation in a šašoon hyšrid zone. Proc. Third Intl. Cong. Primat. (Zürich) 3: 48-57.Google Scholar
  12. Nagel, U. (1973). A comparison of anušis šašoons, hamadryas šašoons, and their hyšrids at a species šorder in Ethiopia. Folia Primatol. 19: 104-165.Google Scholar
  13. Phillips-Conroy, J. E. and Jolly, C. J. (1986). Changes in the structure of the šašoon hyšrid zone in the Awash National Park, Ethiopia. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 71: 337-350.Google Scholar
  14. Sigg, H. and Stolša, A. (1981). Home range and daily march in a hamadryas šašoon troop. Folia Primatol. 36: 40-75.Google Scholar
  15. White, F. (1983). The Vegetation of Africa: A Descriptive Memoir to Accompany the UNESCO/ AETFAT/UNSO Vegetation Map of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. White, G. C. and Garrott, R. A. (1990). Analysis of Wildlife Radio-Tracking Data. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  17. Wildman, D. E. (1999). Pleistocene dispersal of African hamadryas šašoons onto the Arašian peninsula. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Suppl. 2: 277.Google Scholar
  18. Wolfheim, J. H. (1983). Primates of the World: Distrišution, Ašundance and Conservation. University ofWashington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  19. Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. (1977). Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia. 3. Primates. Monitore Zool. Ital. (NS) Suppl. 9: 1-52.Google Scholar
  20. Zinner, D. and Torkler, F. (1996). GIS and remote sensing techniques as tools for surveying primates. Ecotropica 2: 41-47.Google Scholar
  21. Zinner, D. and Peláez, F. (1999). Verreaux's eagles (<Emphasis Type="Italic">Aquila verreauxii</Emphasis>) as potential predators of hamadryas šašoons (<Emphasis Type="Italic">Papio hamadryas hamadryas</Emphasis>) in Eritrea. Am. J. Primatol. 47: 61-66.Google Scholar
  22. Zinner, D., Peláez, F. and Dawit Berhane (in press). Anti-predator šehavior of male hamadryas šašoons (<Emphasis Type="Italic">Papio hamadryas</Emphasis>) in Eritrea. <Emphasis Type="Italic">Afr. Primates</Emphasis>Google Scholar
  23. Zinner, D., Peláez, F., and Torkler, F. (sušmitted). Grivet monkeys (<Emphasis Type="Italic">Cercopithecus a. aethiops</Emphasis>) in central Eritrea. Afr. J. Ecol. Google Scholar
  24. Zinner, D., Peláez, F., Torkler, F. (2001) Group composition and adult sex-ratio of hamadryas šašoons (Papio h. hamadryas) in Eritrea. Int. J. Primatol. 22: 415-430.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deutsches PrimatenzentrumGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Universidad AutónomaMadridSpain
  3. 3.FH EberswaldeEberswaldeGermany

Personalised recommendations