Aftergood, S. 1999. Project in Government Secrecy. Federation of American Scientists. Washington, DC. website www.for.org.
Agee, P. 1975. Inside the Company: CIA Diary
. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
Akers, K.D. 1998 (FOIA) Letter to R.G. Steiner, August 12, 1998.
Amerson, A.B. 1969. “Ornithology of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
127: 1–348.Google Scholar
—— 1971. “The Natural History of French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
150: 1–383.Google Scholar
Amerson, A.B. and Emerson, K.C. 1971. “Records of Mallophaga from Pacific Birds.” Atoll Research Bulletin
146: 1–30.Google Scholar
Amerson, A.B., Clapp, R.B. and Wirtz, W.O. 1974. “The Natural History of Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
174: 1–306.Google Scholar
Amerson, A.B. and Shelton, P. 1976. “The Natural History of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean.” Atoll Research Bulletin
192: 1–479.Google Scholar
Anonymous. 1969a. “Bird Project a Cover-up for War Test, NBC Says; Smithsonian Denies Military Aid in Tests.” Washington Evening Star (February 4, 1969): 1, 6.
——1969b. “Under Guise of Pacific Isle Bird Study: Army Plan for Biological Warfare Tests Reported.” Honolulu Star Bulletin (February 5, 1969): 1.
——1969c. “Pacific Bird Study Not Linked to Warfare Tests.” Honolulu Star Bulletin (February 5, 1969): 16.
——1969d “News Feature.” New York Times (February 5, 1969).
——1969e. “Poison in the Pacific.” Honolulu Star Bulletin (February 7, 1969). Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 6, Record Unit 245.
——1969f. “Germ War Film Sparks U Debate.” University of Utah Chronicle (February 10, 1969): 1, 3.
——1969g. Barron's Weekly (March 3, 1969).
——1969h. “New Chemical Warfare Superiority Cited by Army in Congress Briefing.” The Washington Post (March 5, 1969). Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 6, Record Unit 245.
——1969i. “News Feature.” New York Times (July 4, 1969).
Auerbach, S. 1969. “Smithsonian Bird Research Tied to Germ Warfare Study.” The Washington Post (February 5, 1969): 7.
Beloff, N. 1969. “Row Breaks over Birds and GermWarfare Mystery.” The Observer. London (February 16, 1969).
——1969. “Are Bird Watchers Helping Germ Warfare Research?” The Advocate News (February 19, 1969), Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 6, Record Unit 245.
Boffey, P.M. 1969. “Biological Warfare: Is the Smithsonian Really a ‘Cover’?” Science
163 (September 21, 1969): 791–796.Google Scholar
Burger, J., Schreiber, E.A.E. and Gochfeld, M. 1992. “Lead, Cadmium, Selenium and Mercury in Seabird Feathers from the Tropical Mid-Pacific.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
11: 815–822.Google Scholar
Capshew, J.H. 1993. “Engineering Behavior: Project Pigeon, World War II and the Conditioning of B.F. Skinner.” Technology and Culture
34(45): 835–857.Google Scholar
Carmicheal, L. 1969. Smithsonian File (February 11, 1969). American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Carter, L.J. 1970. “Smithsonian: Natural History is Undernourished, Panel Finds.” Science
169 (September 4, 1970): 960–963.Google Scholar
Challinor, D. 1998. Personal Communication to Author, November 30, 1998.
Chamberlain, D.F. 1975. Memo to DCI, CIA, 5/20/75. National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. Archives, Washington, D.C. Box 13, Record Unit 245.Google Scholar
Cilladi-Rehrer, P. 1998. Letter to Professor R. Steiner. October 2, 1998.
Clapp, R.B. 1965a “Frigatebirds of the Pacific.” Pacific Bird Observer
1: 3.Google Scholar
——1965b. “Ruddy Turnstone.” Pacific Bird Observer
2: 9.Google Scholar
——1965c. “Sibley to Study Condors.” Pacific Bird Observer
3: 4.Google Scholar
——1966. “Blue-faced Booby: Demon or Dunce.” Pacific Bird Observer
3: 9–11.Google Scholar
——1967. “Howland and Baker Islands, April 1967.” Army Reports, Smithsonian Institution, Natural History Museum.
——1968a. “Additional New Records of Birds from the Phoenix and Line Islands.” Ibis
110(4): 574–575.Google Scholar
——1968b. “Three Unusual Shorebirds from Midway Atoll, Pacific Ocean.” Elepaio
28(9): 76–77.Google Scholar
——1968c. “The Birds of Swain's Island, South Central Pacific.” Notornis
15(3): 198–206.Google Scholar
——1971. “A Specimen of Jouanin's Petrel from Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Condor
73(4): 490.Google Scholar
——1972. “The Natural History of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
163: 1–25.Google Scholar
——1974a. “Albinism in the Black Noddy (Anous tenuirostris). Condor
76(4): 464–465.Google Scholar
——1974b. “Specimens of Three Species of Pterodroma
from the Pacific Ocean.” Ardea
62(3/4): 246–247.Google Scholar
——1975. “Additional Records of Lizards from the Tokelau Islands, Polynesia.” Journal of Herpetology
9(4): 369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
——1976. “Gray-backed Tern eats Lizards.” Wilson Bulletin
88(2): 354.Google Scholar
——1977. “Notes on the Vertebrate Fauna of Tongareva Atoll.” Atoll Research Bulletin
198: 1–7.Google Scholar
——1979. “Review of Buff-Breasted Sandpiper Records in the Central Pacific.” Elepaio
40(6): 93.Google Scholar
——1980. “Occurrence of Central Pacific Blue-faced Booby and Sooty Tern in Southeast Asia.” Tori
29(2/3): 95–96.Google Scholar
——1986. “A Summary of Alcid Records from Hawaii.” Colonial Waterbirds
9(1): 104–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
——1989. “A Specimen Record of the Fork-tailed Swift from the Marshall Islands.” Elepaio
49(1): 1–2.Google Scholar
——1990. “Notes on the Birds of Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
342: 1–94.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Hackman, C.D. 1969. “Longevity Record for a Breeding Great Frigatebird.” Bird-Banding
40(1): 47.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Huber, L.H. 1971. “Imperfect Albinism in a Red-Tailed Tropicbird.” Condor
73(1): 123.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and King, W.B. 1975. “Status of the Kokikokiko Acrocephalus aequinoctialis
.” Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club
95(1): 2–3.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B., Kleen, V.B. and Olsen, D.L. 1969. “First Records of Emperor Geese in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Elepaio
30(6): 51–52.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B., Klimkiewicz, M.K. and Kennard, J.H. 1982. “Longevity Records of North American Birds: Gaviidae through Alcidae.” Journal of Field Ornithology
53(2): 81–124.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Kridler, E. 1977. “The Natural History of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
206: 1–102.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B., Kridler, E. and Fleet, R.R. 1977. “The Natural History of Nihoa Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
207: 1–147.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Pyle, R.L. 1968. “Noteworthy Records ofWaterbirds in Oahu.” Elepaio
29(5): 37–39.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B., Robbins, C.S. and Kenyon, K.W. 1980. “Additional Records of Black-legged Kittiwakes from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Elepaio
40(7): 98–99.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Sibley, F.C. 1966a. “Longevity Records of some Central Pacific Seabirds.” Bird-Banding
37(3): 193–197.Google Scholar
——1966b. “Notes on the Birds of Tutuila, American Samoa.” Notornis
13(3): 157–164.Google Scholar
——1967. “New Records of Birds from the Phoenix and Line Islands.” Ibis
109(1): 122–125.Google Scholar
——1971a. “The Vascular Flora and Terrestrial Vertebrates of Vostok Island, South Central Pacific.” Atoll Research Bulletin
144: 1–9.Google Scholar
——1971b. “Notes on the Vascular Flora and Terrestrial Vertebrates of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
145: 1–18.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Woodward, P.W. 1968. “New Records of Birds from the Hawaiian Leeward Islands.” Proceedings U.S. National Museum
124(3640): 1–39.Google Scholar
Clapp, R.B. and Wirtz, W.O. 1975. The Natural History of Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
186: 1–196.Google Scholar
R.B., Udvardy, M.D.F. and Kepler, A.K. 1996. “An Annotated Bibliography of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin 434.
Cole, L. 1988. Cloud of Secrecy. The Army's Germ Warfare Tests over Populated Areas
. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
——1997. The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare
. NewYork: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
Covert, N. 1998. Letter to M. Rauzon, July 17, 1998.
——1997. A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland 3rd edition. Fort Detrick: US Army.
Deacon, M. 1971. Scientists and the Sea, 1650–1900: Study of Marine Science
. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
Department of Defense. 1969. “Pacific Project.” Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 6, Record Unit 245.
Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). 1998. Bibliographic Search. Droppings from the Eagle's Roost, Natural History Museum. Entry: December 13, 1963; Entry: January 3, 1964; Entry: April 18, 1966; Entry: February 19, 1969.
Ely, C. nd. “The Pelagic Program of the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program.” Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 15, Record Unit 245.
——1965a. Memo. April 23, 1965. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 12, Record Unit 245.
——1965b. Memo. April 28, 1965. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 12, Record Unit 245.
Ely, C. and Clapp, R.B. 1973. “The Natural History of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin
171: 1–361.Google Scholar
Evans, C. 1969. “Notes of Meeting, February 26, 1969.” Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 4, Record Unit 429.
——1975. Oral History Project Interview, Senate of Scientists Project 5/28/75. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archives and Special Collections, p. 66.
Galison, P., Hevly, B. and Lowen, R. 1992. Controlling the Monster: Stanford and the Growth of Physics Research (1935–1962)
. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Gascoigne, J. 1998. Science in the Service of Empire: Joseph Banks, the British State and the Uses of Science in the Age of Revolution
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Gould, P.J. 1974. “Sooty tern (Sterna Fuscata
).” Paper #68, Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program. In: Pelagic Studies of Seabirds in the Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean
, ed. King W.B., Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 158., Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
Gould, S.J. 1969. “Smithsonian's Albatross.” Science 164 (May 2, 1969): 497.
Gup, T. 1985. “The Smithsonian's Secret Contract: The Link between Birds and Biological Warfare.” “The Washington Post Magazine
12: May: 8–14.Google Scholar
Henson, P.M. 1999. “The Smithsonian Goes to War: The Increase and Diffusion of Scientific Knowledge in the Pacific” In: Science and the PacificWar, 1939–1945
, ed. MacLeod R.M., pp. 27–50. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
Humphrey, P.S. 1965. “An Ecological Survey of the Central Pacific.” Smithsonian Year
, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 21–30.Google Scholar
——1996. Letter to author, May 12, 1996.
King, W.B. 1973. “Conservation Status of the Birds of Central Pacific Islands.” Wilson Bulletin
85(1): 89–103.Google Scholar
Leff, D.N. 1940. Uncle Sam's Pacific Islets
. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Leslie, S.W. 1990. “Profit and Loss: The Military and MIT in the Postwar Era.” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences
21: 59–85.Google Scholar
Linklater, E. 1972. The Voyage of the Challenger
. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
Lowen, R. 1991. “Transforming the University: Administrators, Physicists, and Industrial and Federal Patronage at Stanford, 1935–1949.” History of Education Quarterly
31(3): 365–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
——1992. “Exploiting a Wonderful Opportunity: The Patronage of Scientific Research at Stanford University, 1937–1965.” Minerva
30: 391–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacLeod, R. and Rehbock, P.F., eds. 1994. Darwin's Laboratory: Evolutionary Theory and Natural History in the Pacific
. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Marchetti, V. and Marks, J.D. 1980. The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence
. New York: Laurel.Google Scholar
Marks, J. 1979. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control
. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Marks, J.S., Redmond, R.L., Henrichs, P., Clapp, R.B. and Gill, R.E. 1990. “Notes on Longevity and Flightlessness in Bristle-thighed Curlews.” Auk
107(4): 779–781.Google Scholar
Miller, M. 1974. Plain Speaking: An Oral Biography of Harry S. Truman
. London: Victor Gollancz.Google Scholar
Nelson, B. 1969. “MIT's March 4: Scientists Discuss Renouncing Military Research.” Science
163 (March 14, 1969): 1175–1178.Google Scholar
Ornithological Council. 1997. Providing Scientific Information About Birds.
Pacific Ocean Birds Survey Program (POBSP). 1964. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Box 8, Record Unit 245.
Preston, R. 1998. “The Bioweaponeers.” The New Yorker (March 9, 1998): 52–65.
Ranelagh, J. 1986. The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA
. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
Rauzon, M.J., Harrison, C.S. and Clapp, R.B. 1984. “Breeding Biology of the Blue-gray Noddy.” Journal of Field Ornithology
55(3): 309–321.Google Scholar
Regis, E. 1999. The Biology of Doom: America's Secret Germ Warfare Project
. New York: Harry Holt and Co.Google Scholar
Rehbock, P.F., ed. 1992. At Sea with the Scientifics: The “Challenger” Letters of Joseph Matkin. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
“Research in CBR.” 1969. (Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare), Report of the Committee of Science and Astronautics, 86th Congress, House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., Report 815.
Richelson, J.T. 1998. “Scientists in Black.” Scientific American
278(2): 38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sauders, F.S. 1999. Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War
. London: Granta.Google Scholar
Schlee, S. 1973. The Edge of an Unfamiliar World: A History of Oceanography
. New York: E.P. Dutton.Google Scholar
Schreiber, E.A. and Schreiber, R.W. 1988. “Great Frigatebird Size Dimorphism on Two Central Pacific Atolls.” The Condor
90: 90–99.Google Scholar
Schreiber, R.W. and Chovan, J.L. 1986. “Roosting by Pacific Seabirds: Energetic, Populational and Social Considerations.” The Condor
88: 487–492.Google Scholar
Sibley, F. and Clapp, R. 1965. “Biological Survey of Baker Island.” Army Reports
, Smithsonian Institution, Natural History Museum, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
Siekevitz, P. 1969. Letter to Scientific Research, January 6, 1969, pp. 6–7.
Simpson, C. 1998. Universities and Empire: Money and Politics in the Social Sciences during the Cold War
. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Small, W.E. 1968. “DOD Supporting Bird Studies in Pacific, Brazil.” Scientific Research (December 9, 1968): 27.
Smart, J.K. 1991. Chemical Warfare: Lessons Learned from the Past. US Army Historical Division, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Special Study No. 8 (March, 1991).
——1994. Historical Highlights. US Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command, Special Study No. 1.
Smithsonian Institution. 1969a. “Press Release.”
Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C. Record Units 99, 245, 429, and other items as specified.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). 1973. The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare
, Vol II: CB Weapons Today
. Stockholm: Almavist and Wiksell / New York: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
Stoddart, D.R. 1996. Personal communication to author, August 14, 1999.
——1999. “Personal communication to author, November 3, 1996.”
Swire, H. 1938. The Voyage of the Challenger: A Personal Narrative of the Historic Circumnavigation of the Globe in the Years 1872–1876
, 2 Vols. London: Golden Cockerel.Google Scholar
Tschirley, F.H. 1969. “Defoliation in Vietnam.” Science
163 (February 21, 1969): 779–786.Google Scholar
U.S. Biological Warfare Programs, “U.S. Army Activity in the U.S. Biological Warfare Programs.” February 24, 1977 in: U.S. Senate, Committee on Human Resources, Hearings:Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense
, Annex A: 23–234, pp. 40–51 et. passim
Viola, H.J. and Margolis, C., eds. 1985. Magnificent Voyagers: The U.S. Exploring Expedition,1838–1842
. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
Woodward, P.W. 1972. “The Natural History of Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.” Atoll Research Bulletin Nos. 163–164.
Woodward, P.W. and Clapp, R.B. 1969. “First Record of Baird's Sandpiper from the Central Pacific.” Elepaio
30(3): 25.Google Scholar
Wright, S., ed. 1990. Preventing a Biological Arms Race. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.